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Volume 5, Number 3—June 1999

Perspective

Iron Loading and Disease Surveillance

Eugene D. WeinbergComments to Author 
Author affiliation: Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA

Main Article

Table 4

Conditions that can compromise iron withholding (1,3)

Excessive intake of iron through intestinal absorption
Behavioral and nutritional factors
Accidental ingestion of iron tablets
Adulteration of processed foods with inorganic iron or blood
Excessive consumption of red meats (heme iron)
Excessive intake of alcohol (HCl secretion enhanced)
Folic acid deficiency
Ingestion of ascorbic acid with inorganic iron
Use of iron cookware
Genetic and physiological factors
African siderosis
Asplenia (mechanism unknown)
Pancreatic deficiency of bicarbonate ions
Porphyria cutanea tarda
Regulatory defect in mucosal cells in hemochromatosis
Thalassemia, sicklemia, other hemoglobinopathies
Parenteral iron
Intramuscular and intravenous iron saccharate injections in excess
Multiple transfusions of whole blood or erythrocytes in excess
Inhaled iron
Exposure to amosite, crocidolite, or tremolite asbestos
Exposure to urban air particulates
Mining iron ore, welding, grinding steel
Painting with iron oxide powder
Tobacco smoking (1-2 µg iron inhaled per cigarette pack)
Release of body iron from compartments into plasma
Efflux of erythrocyte iron in hemolytic diseases
Efflux of hepatocyte iron in hepatitis
Deficit in iron withholding
Transferrin
Decreased synthesis
Congenital defect
Lack of dietary amino acids in kwashiorkor or in jejunoileal bypass
Decreased activity in acidosis
Lactoferrin
Neutropenia
Substitution of bovine milk or milk formula for human milk in nursling nutrition
Haptoglobin
Decreased synthesis in persons with haplotype 2-2 (28)

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