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Volume 5, Number 3—June 1999

Research

Tuberculosis in the Caribbean: Using Spacer Oligonucleotide Typing to Understand Strain Origin and Transmission

Christophe Sola, Anne Devallois, Lionel Horgen, Jérôme Maïsetti, Ingrid Filliol, Eric Legrand, and Nalin RastogiComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Institut Pasteur de Guadeloupe, Pointe à Pitre, Guadeloupe

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Table 3

Molecular fingerprinting and epidemiologic information from spoligotyping-defined clusters shown in Figure 7a

Spoligotype no. meth. 1 No. of strains harboring this type No. of strains typed by
Summary of results obtained by molecular typing methodsb Clinical and epidemiologic data, origin, observations
IS6110 RFLP meth.2 DR RFLP meth.3 DRE PCR meth.4
1 2 2 2 2 Different by meth. 2, Beijing IS6110 pattern Found in Surinam and Guadeloupe
2 9 9 2 8 No subcluster by PGRS-RFLP: all strains identical by meth. 2 and 4 IS-type J and by PGRS-RFLP 2 patients from hospital A and 2 from B + 2 patients with same surnames
3 3 3 1 3 2/3 strains identical by meth. 2, 3, and 4, IS-type P Found in Surinam and Guadeloupe, 2 patients from hospital A
5 2 1 1 2 2/2 strains identical by meth. 2 and 4, IS type not yet defined Found in Martinique and Guadeloupe, no evident epidemiologic link
12 2 2 2 1 One spacer difference with type 14, identical by meth. 2 and 3, IS-type A Very common pattern, represent both active transmission and reactivation
13 2 2 2 ND One spacer difference with type 14, identical by meth. 2 and 3, IS-type A Suspicion of cross-contamination (sampling in the same hospital in 3 days)
14 15 15 13 8 Identical by meth. 2 and 3, identical by method 4 (one band), IS-type A Very common pattern, represent both active transmission and reactivation
15 2 2 2 2 2/2 strains identical by meth. 2, 3, and 4, IS-type C Imported cluster (Surinam or Dominican Republic)
17 6 6 1 5 Subclustered by PGRS-RFLP: 17B, 2 strains identical by meth. 2, 3 and 4, IS-type N 17B found in 2 Guadeloupean patients hospitalized in same hospital B
29 5 5 4 5 5/5 strains identical by meth. 2, 3, and 4, IS-type B 3 of 5 Guadeloupean patients hospitalized in same hospital B
30 2 2 2 2 2/2 strains identical by meth. 2, 3, and 4 2 patients from the same part of Guadeloupe
31 2 2 1 1 2/2 strains different by meth. 2 Found in French Guiana and in Guadeloupe, no epidemiologic link
33 2 ND ND 2 2/2 strains different by meth. 4 Found in French Guiana, no epidemiologic link
34 2 2 1 2 2/2 strains identical by meth. 4, method 2: inconclusive, under investigation Patients from French Guiana, suspected to be epidemiologically linked
42 3 3 1 3 3/3 strains different by meth. 2 and 4 Found in Guadeloupe (one patient) and French Guiana (2 patients), no link
44 2 2 ND 2 2/2 strains identical by meth. 2 and 4 2 patients from St. Maarten (couple)
45 6 1 ND 4 4/6 strains identical by meth. 4. (2: pending) 5 patients from Martinique, one from Guadeloupe, under investigation
46 3 1 ND 3 2/3 strains identical by meth. 4 Found in a Martinique and a Guadeloupe patient, under investigation
50c 29 16 8 20 Subclustered by meth. 2, 4 and PGRS-RFLP, IS-type E (3 pat.) and F (2 pat) Imported clusters (Haïti), other links under investigation
51 4 3 2 3 2/4 strains identical by meth. 2 and 4 (2: pending) Imported cluster (Haïti) for 2 patients, other links under investigation
53c 29 10 8 20 Subclustered by meth. 2, 4 and PGRS, IS-type K (2 pat.) and T (3 pat.) Patients from cluster T come from the same ward of hospital A, 1996
61 2 2 1 1 2/2 strains identical by PGRS-RFLP, IS results: under investigation Found in French Guiana in Guadeloupe, under investigation
63 2 2 1 2 2/2 strains identical by meth. 2 and 4, IS-type R 2 patients from hospital A in Guadeloupe, under investigation
64 1 1 ND 1 *** 2 isolates from one single patient
65 2 ND ND ND (Results pending) Found in French Guiana, under investigation
66 2 2 ND 2 2/2 strains identical by meth. 2 and 4 Found in French Guiana, same surname
67 2 1 ND 2 2/2 strains identical by meth. 2 and PGRS-RFLP Found in French Guiana, under investigation
68 2 1 ND ND (Results pending) Found in one Martinique patient and in Barbados, under investigation

aOf 218 isolates typed, 145 isolates were grouped in 27 distinct spoligo-defined clusters, which were further analyzed by one or more typing methods—IS6110-RFLP (meth. 2), DR-RFLP (meth. 3), and DRE-PCR (meth.4), and sometimes PGRS-RFLP when DRE-PCR or IS6110-RFLP results were inconclusive or unavailable.
bIsolates with matching spoligotypes and matching IS6110 patterns (meth. 1 and 2) or with matching spoligotypes and matching DRE-PCR patterns (meth. 1 and 4) were considered to make up a cluster of epidemiologically associated strains.
c Noninformative spoligotype patterns that lack any discriminating power.
*** Two clinical isolates from a single patient.
RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphism; DR, direct repeat; DRE, double-repetitive element; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PGRS, polymorphic GC-rich probe; ND, not done.

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