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Volume 6, Number 6—December 2000

Research

Risk Factors for Otitis Media and Carriage of Multiple Strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae

Jennifer St. Sauver*, Carl F. Marrs*, Betsy Foxman*, Patricia Somsel†, Robbie Madera*, and Janet R. Gilsdorf*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; †Regional Medical Laboratories Inc, Battle Creek, Michigan, USA

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Table 3

Univariate logistic regression odds ratios and 95% confidence intervalsa predicting carriage of two or more genetically distinct Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates during a sampling period.

Risk Factor Carriage of two or more H. influenzae genetic types (n=55) OR (95% CI) Carriage of two or more S. pneumoniae genetic types (n=6) OR (95% CI)
Male 1.11 (0.49-2.53) 0.63 (0.07-5.68)
Race (nonwhite) 0.93 (0.39-2.19) 0.92 (0.16-5.47)
Age (23 months, referent)
24-35 months 0.41 (0.11-1.55) --
36-47 months 2.49 (0.92-6.74) --
>48 months 1.43 (0.43-4.78) --
Allergies 2.26 (0.87-5.87) 1.37 (0.20-9.56)
Exposure to smoking 3.73 (1.42-9.82) --
Pacifier use 0.23 (0.07-0.79) 3.01 (0.29-31.55)
Otitis prone (having more than 3 infections/year) 0.39 (0.15-1.02) 1.64 (0.22-12.44)
Presence of tubes 0.96 (0.26-3.49) 1.14 (0.11-11.80)
Having siblings 1.42 (0.60-3.39) 0.96 (0.10-9.38)
High parental education level (>4 years of college) 1.42 (0.60-3.39) 1.21 (0.16-9.24)
Parental income (<$10,000-40,000 baseline)
$41,000-$80,000/year 1.50 (0.39-5.72) 1.51 (0.14-16.00)
$81,000->$100,000/year 1.01 (0.26-3.89) 0.43 (0.03-6.07)
Day care site 1 1.06 (0.46-2.43) 2.26 (0.36-14.01)
Antibiotic use 0.25 (0.32-1.57)
Respiratory illness 0.71 (0.32-1.57) 0.72 (0.11-4.56)
Otitis media episode 0.46 (0.11-1.84) --

a Logistic regressions performed with the generalized estimating equations (GEE) SAS macro to control for correlation between multiple samples taken from the same child.

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