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Volume 7, Number 6—December 2001

Perspective

Could Malaria Reappear in Italy?

Roberto Romi*Comments to Author , Guido Sabatinelli*†, and Giancarlo Majori*
Author affiliations: *Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy;; †World Health Organization, Regional Office for Eastern Mediterranean Region, Cairo, Egypt

Main Article

Table 1

Distribution and density of Anopheles labranchiae and An. superpictus in five regions of central, southern, and insular Italy

Region At-risk areas Vector Larval breeding sitesa Vector density and capacityb
Tuscany Grosseto province: areas of intensive rice cultivation (S. Carlo, Principina and S. Donato, Orbetello) An.labranchiae Rice fields, agricultural and land reclamation canals, wells. Larval densities in rice fields 5-10 larvae/sample, elsewhere 0.5-1 larvae/sample 100-1,000 per animal shelter;
180-200/person /night. VC in rice fields: P. falc. 7-26; P. vivax 8.3-32.5; VC in natural breeding sites: P. falc. 0.8-2.9; P. vivax 0.96-3.3
Apulia Coastal plains of the Adriatic side, from Lesina Lake to Candelaro River An.labranchiae Land reclamation canals, pools for agricultural purposes. Larval densities 0.02 -0.05 larvae/sample 20-30 per animal shelter
Calabria Coastal plains of the Tirrenian and Ionian sides and the close hinterland An. labranchiaeAn. superpictus Larval densities:
An. labranchiae 0.1- 1 larvae/sample
An. superpictus 0.06-0.1 larvae/sample 20-500 An. labranchiae, 2-10 An. superpictus per animal shelter. 10-20 An.labr./person/ night. VC of An. labranchiae for P. falciparum 0.8-8.9
Sicily Rural coastal and hilly areas of the whole region An. labranchiaeAn. superpictus Rivers, streams, pools, and canals for agricultural purposes. Larval densities of An. labranchiae 0.03 to 0.5 larvae/sample 10-200 An. labranchiae per animal shelter
Sardinia Rural coastal and hilly areas of the whole region An. labranchiae Mainly rivers and streams; ponds, artificial pools, rice fields and irrigation canals. Larval densities 1 to 10 larvae/sample 5-40 per animal shelter

aFigures refer to areas considered as "at risk" for malaria reintroduction during surveys carried out from 1994 to 1996.
bCalculated at a mean temperature of 25°C (July to August), assuming a sporogonic cycle of 11 days for P. falciparum and 10 days for P. vivax. VC = vectorial capacity.

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