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Volume 8, Number 11—November 2002
THEME ISSUE
Tuberculosis Genotyping

Tuberculosis Genotyping Network, United States

Human Exposure following Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Multiple Animal Species in a Metropolitan Zoo

Peter Oh*, Reuben Granich*†, Jim Scott*, Ben Sun‡, Michael Joseph*, Cynthia Stringfield§, Susan Thisdell§, Jothan Staley¶, Donna Workman-Malcolm¶, Lee Borenstein#, Eleanor Lehnkering#, Patrick Ryan#, Jeanne Soukup#, Annette Nitta#, and Jennifer Flood*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *California Department of Health Services, Berkeley, California, USA; †Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; ‡California Department of Health Services, Sacramento, California, USA; §Los Angeles Zoo, Los Angeles, California, USA; ¶City of Los Angeles Occupational Health Services Division, Los Angeles, California, USA; #Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, Los Angeles, California, USA;

Main Article

Table

Relative risks for tuberculin skin-test conversion based on answers reported on employee exposure questionnairesa

Characteristics reported in questionnaire Convertersb (%) TST-negativesc (%) Risk ratio (95% CI) p value
Male 13 (87) 112 (45) 7.3 (1.7 to 31.9) 0.002
Ethnicity
Hispanic 10 (67) 109 (44) 2.4 (0.8 to 6.8) 0.092
White 2 (13) 105 (43)d 0.2 (0.1 to 1.0) 0.025
Black 2 (13) 22 (9) 1.5 (0.4 to 6.3) 0.41
Asian 1 (7) 9 (4) 1.8 (0.3 to 12.3) 0.45
U.S.-born 11 (73) 226 (90) 0.4 (0.1 to 1.0) 0.052
BCG vaccine history 0 (0) 15 (7)e 0.0 (0.0 to 6.0)f 0.40
Contact with any animal 7 (50)g 147 (60) h 0.7 (0.2 to 1.9) 0.45
Job type
Animal care 4 (29) g 91 (37) i 0.7 (0.2 to 2.2) 0.54
Groundskeeping 5 (36) g 14 (6) 7.1 (2.6 to 19.1) <0.001
Custodial 2 (14) g 19 (8) 1.9 (0.5 to 8.0) 0.31
Maintenance 1 (7) 15 (6) 1.2 (0.2 to 8.5) 0.60
Construction 1 (7) 11 (4) 1.6 (0.2 to11.3) 0.49
Administrative 1 (7) 67 (27) 0.2 (0.0 to 1.7) 0.082
Animal health center exposure 5 (33) 152 (63) j 0.3 (0.1 to 0.9) 0.025
Elephant compound exposure 5 (33) 130 (52) 0.5 (0.2 to 1.4) 0.17
Trained elephants 3 (20) 12 (5) 4.1 (1.3 to 13.1) 0.045
Visited elephants 2 (13) 77 (31) 0.4 (0.1 to 1.6) 0.12
Attended necropsy 3 (20) 7 (3) 6.3 (2.1 to 18.9) 0.014
Goat compound exposure 3 (20) 72 (29) 0.6 (0.2 to 2.2) 0.35
Rhino compound exposure 2 (13) 82 (33) 0.3 (0.1 to 1.5) 0.097
Animal nursery exposure 2 (13) 124 (50) i 0.2 (0.0 to 0.7) 0.007

aTST, tuberculin skin test; CI, confidence interval.
bEmployee with a positive TST in any of the converter categories as described (true, probable, or possible). N=15, except where noted.
cN=251, except where noted.
dN=245.
eN=232.
fOdds ratio reported because of a zero value.
gN=14.
hN=244.
iN=248.
jN=243.

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