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Volume 8, Number 12—December 2002

Research

Leptospirosis: Skin Wounds and Control Strategies, Thailand, 1999

Phran Phraisuwan*, Ellen A. Spotts Whitney†, Piyanit Tharmaphornpilas*, Suriya Guharat*, Samart Thongkamsamut‡, Suphaporn Aresagig‡, Jayteeya Liangphongphanthu§, Kanlayanee Junthima, Apirat Sokampang, and David A. Ashford†Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; †Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; ‡Buriram Provincial Health Office, Buriram, Thailand; §Khumuang hospital, Buriram, Thailand; and ¶Northeastern Regional Epidemiology Center, Nakornratchasima, Thailand;

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Table 1

Results of univariate analysis of potential risk factors for leptospirosis infection among persons participating in cleaning a pond: odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and chi-square p value

Risk Factor Infected
(n = 43) (%) Noninfected (n = 61) (%) OR (95%CI) p value
Demographic
Gender
Male 27 (62.8) 28 (45.9) 1.99 (0.896 to 4.42) 0.091
Female 16 (37.2) 33 (54.1)
Age in yrs (continuous) 0.970 (0.939 to 1.00)
Individual
Reported clinical illness 17 (39.5) 15 (24.6) 2.01 (0.862 to 4.67) 0.106
Location in the pond where work was preformed
Site 1 5 (11.6) 10 (16.4) 0.67 (0.212 to 2.13) 0.498
Site 2 13 (30.2) 14 (23.0) 1.45 (0.602 to 3.52) 0.405
Site 3 15 (34.9) 30 (49.2) 0.55 (0.248 to 1.24) 0.149
Site 4 11 (25.6) 17 (27.9) 0.89 (0.367 to 2.16) 0.796
Site 5 14 (32.6) 14 (23.0) 1.62 (0.677 to 3.88) 0.279
Site 6 7 (16.3) 7 (11.5) 1.50 (0.485 to 4.64) 0.482
Site 7 10 (23.3) 11 (18.0) 1.38 (0.526 to 3.61) 0.514
Place where person ate lunch, pond rim vs. elsewhere 2 (4.7) 5 (8.2) 0.55 (0.101 to 2.96) 0.483
Clothing worn while working in the pond
Shirt 443 (100) 60 (98.4) * 0.986
Short sleeve shirt 10 (23.3) 7 (11.5) 2.34 (0.811 to 6.74) 0.116
Long sleeve shirt 33 (76.7) 53 (86.9) 0.500 (0.178 to 1.39) 0.183
Trousers 26 (60.5) 44 (72.1) 0.590 (0.258 to 1.35) 0.214
Long skirt 6 (14.0) 11 (18.0) 0.740 (0.250 to 2.17) 0.581
Trousers or long skirt vs. shorts 32 (74.4) 55 (90.2) 0.32 (0.107 to 0.940) 0.038
Any type of glove 1 (2.3) 2 (3.3) 0.700 (0.062 to 8.00) 0.776
Slippers 5 (11.6) 11 (18.0) 0.600 (0.192 to 1.87) 0.376
Tennis shoes or cut shoes 1 (2.3) 1 (1.6) 1.43 (0.087 to 23.5) 0.803
Boots 2 (4.7) 7 (11.5) 0.38 (0.074 to 1.91) 0.238
Boots filled with water 3 (7.0) 12 (19.7) 0.310 (0.081 to 1.16) 0.082
Any use of footwear 11 (25.6) 31 (50.8) 0.33 (0.142 to 0.778) 0.011
Wounds present while working in the pond
Any hand wound 31 (72.1) 34 (55.7) 2.05 (0.889 to 4.73) 0.092
Hand wounds,
 0–5 vs. 6 or more 12 (27.9) 11 (18.0) 1.76 (0.692 to 4.47) 0.235
Any trunk wound 2 (4.7) 2 (3.3) 1.44 (0.195 to 10.6) 0.721
Trunk wounds,
 0–5 vs. 6 or more 1 (2.3) 1 (1.6) 1.43 (0.087 to 23.5) 0.803
Any leg wounds 10 (23.3) 6 (9.8) 2.78 (0.924 to 8.35) 0.069
Leg wounds, 0–5 vs. 6 or more 5 (11.6) 1 (1.6) 7.89 (0.888 to 70.2) 0.064
Any foot wound 3 (7.0) 9 (14.8) 0.43 (0.110 to 1.71) 0.232
Any wound 33 (76.7) 40 (65.6) 1.73 (0.716 to 4.19) 0.233
Total number of wounds dichotomized at the median, 2.0 21 (48.8) 13 (21.3) 3.52 (1.50, 8.30) 0.004

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