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Volume 8, Number 3—March 2002

Research

The Relationship between Antimicrobial Use and Antimicrobial Resistance in Europe

Stef L.A.M. Bronzwaer*Comments to Author , Otto Cars†, Udo Buchholz*, Sigvard Mölstad‡, Wim Goettsch*, Irene K. Veldhuijzen*, Jacob L. Kool*, Marc J.W. Sprenger*, John E. Degener§, and participants in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System
Author affiliations: *National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; †Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden; ‡The Nepi Foundation, Malmö, Sweden; §Groningen University Hospital, Groningen, the Netherlands;

Main Article

Table

Number of submitting laboratories, number of isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, number (#) and percent (%R) of penicillin nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae isolates, logodds of resistance (ln(%R/[1-%R]), and outpatient sales of beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides

Country No. of labora-tories No. of S. pneumoniae isolates Penicillin nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae Outpatient sales of antibiotics in DDDa/1,000 inhabitants/day
No. %R (95% CI) ln (%R/[1-%R]) Beta-lactam antibiotics Macrolides
Austria - - - - - 6 3.7
Belgium 96 940 131 14 (12-16) -1.82 14 4.1
Denmark - - - - - 7 2
Finland 11 211 8 4 (2-8) -3.18 8[REMOVED ADVANCE FIELD] [REMOVED ADVANCE FIELD]1.9
[REMOVED ADVANCE FIELD]France [REMOVED ADVANCE FIELD]- [REMOVED ADVANCE FIELD]- [REMOVED ADVANCE FIELD]- [REMOVED ADVANCE FIELD]- [REMOVED ADVANCE FIELD]- 24[REMOVED ADVANCE FIELD] [REMOVED ADVANCE FIELD]6.0
Germany 15 222 4 2 (1-5) -3.89 5 2.5
Iceland 2 54 1 2 (0-11) -3.89 Not available Not available
Ireland 12 157 30 19 (13-26) -1.45 11 2.5
Italy 46 194 26 13 (9-19) -1.87 15 5.1
Luxembourg 1 11 2 18 (3-52) -1.52 14 4.7
Netherlands 20 760 8 1 (0-2) -4.6 4 1.2
Portugal 12 134 25 19 (13-27) -1.45 16 3.7
Spain 76 1,240 418 34 (31-36) -0.66 21 5.9
Sweden 24 706 21 3 (2-5) -3.48 8 1
United Kingdom 22 243 21 9 (6-13) -2.31 9 3.2

aDDD = defined daily doses; CI = confidence interval.

Main Article

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