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Volume 8, Number 5—May 2002

Research

Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Healthy Children: Implications for the Use of Heptavalent Pnemococcal Conjugate Vaccine

Paola Marchisio*, Susanna Esposito*, Gian Carlo Schito†, Anna Marchese†, Roberta Cavagna*, Nicola Principi*Comments to Author , and the Hercules Project Collaborative Group
Author affiliations: *University of Milan, Milan, Italy; †University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy

Main Article

Table 1

Characteristics of the 2,799 children tested for nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 13 Italian cities, April 15–June15, 2000

Characteristics
No. of children
(% of 2,799)
Male 1,459 (52.1)
Race (white) 2,760 (98.6)
Age
<2 yrs 420 (15.0)
2-5 yrs 1,389 (49.6)
>5 yrs 990 (35.4)
Breast-feeding ≥3 mo. 1,477 (52.8)
Urban residence 2,537 (90.6)
Full-time child-care attendancea 2,571 (91.9)
No. of subjects in each child-care center
<20 927 (33.1)
20-29 1,600 (57.2)
>29 272 (9.7)
No. of siblings
0 752 (26.9)
1 1,450 (51.8)
>2 597 (21.3)
First-born 1,366 (48.8)
Passive smoking 1,320 (47.2)
URTIs in the last 3 mo.b
Rhinitis 1,759 (62.8)
Tonsillitis 636 (22.7)
Laryngitis 501 (17.9)
Acute otitis media 558 (19.9)
Acute sinusitis 174 (6.2)
LRTIs in the last 3 mo.b
Acute bronchitis 579 (20.7)
Pneumonia 167 (5.9)
Antibiotic therapy in the last 3 mo.c
Aminopenicillins 244 (8.7)
Amoxicillin-clavulanate 214 (7.6)
Macrolides 247 (8.8)
Cephalosporins 507 (18.1)
At least one antibiotic 1,032 (36.9)

a5-6 days/week, 6-8 hrs/day.
bOne or more episodes; URTIs = upper respiratory tract infections; LRTIs = lower respiratory tract infections.
c One or more courses.

Main Article

1The Hercules Project Collaborative Group includes: F. Schettini, D. De Mattia (Bari, Italy); G. P. Salvioli, G. Faldella (Bologna, Italy); G. Caramia, E. Ruffini (Ancona, Italy); E. Reali (Cinisello Balsamo, Italy); R. Longhi (Como, Italy); G. Bona (Novara, Italy); A. Guarino, F. Albano (Napoli, Italy); R. Malvicini (Fidenza, Italy); L. Ziino (Palermo, Italy); I. Barberi, T. Corona (Messina, Italy); P. Pusceddu (Cagliari, Italy); T. Meloni (Sassari, Italy); G. Saggese, and M. Migliaccio (Pisa, Italy).

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