Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content
CDC Home

Volume 8, Number 5—May 2002

Research

Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Healthy Children: Implications for the Use of Heptavalent Pnemococcal Conjugate Vaccine

Paola Marchisio*, Susanna Esposito*, Gian Carlo Schito†, Anna Marchese†, Roberta Cavagna*, Nicola Principi*Comments to Author , and the Hercules Project Collaborative Group
Author affiliations: *University of Milan, Milan, Italy; †University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy

Main Article

Table 4

Univariate analysis of the variables potentially associated with the nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Total carriers Carriers of invasive strains Carriers of strains covered by the heptavalent vaccine
Risk factor ORsa 95% CIb ORs 95% CI ORs 95% CI
Sex 1.0 0.8-1.4 0.9 0.7-1.4 0.9 0.7-1.3
Age, yrs
2-5
 >5 0.7
1.5 0.1-1.7
0.9-2.5 1.3
0.9 0.8-2.3
0.5-1.6 1.5
1.1 0.9-2.7
0.6-1.9
Breast-feeding ≥3 mo. 0.9 0.6-1.4 1.0 0.6-1.7 1.1 0.7-1.7
Urban residence 0.8 0.1-2.2 1.2 0.6-2.6 1.5 0.7-2.9
Full-time day-care attendance 0.4 0.1-1.5 0.8 0.6-1.2 1.0 0.7-1.4
Child-care center ≥20 subjects 0.9 0.6-1.3 1.2 0.8-1.9 1.2 0.8-1.9
At least one sibling 0.9 0.7-1.3 0.7 0.4-1.2 0.7 0.4-1.3
First-born 1.0 0.8-1.4 1.1 0.8-1.6 1.1 0.8-1.6
Passive smoking 1.0 0.7-1.3 1.0 0.7-1.4 1.0 0.7-1.4
At least one URTIscin the previous 3 mo.
Rhinitis 0.9 0.7-1.3 1.0 0.7-1.5 1.0 0.7-1.5
Tonsillitis 0.8 0.6-1.3 0.9 0.6-1.5 1.0 0.6-1.5
Laryngitis 0.6 0.3-1.1 0.8 0.5-1.5 0.8 0.4-1.5
Acute otitis media 1.3 0.9-1.9 1.5 0.9-2.3 1.4 0.9-2.2
Acute sinusitis 2.3 1.1-4.6d 3.1 1.4-6.d 3.3 1.6-6.9 d
LRTIse in the previous 3 mo.
Acute bronchitis 0.7 0.4-1.1 0.6 0.3-1.1 0.6 0.4-1.1
Pneumonia 0.8 0.2-2.6 0.4 0.1-3.1 0.9 0.2-3.7
Antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 mo.
Aminopenicillins 0.9 0.6-1.5 1.0 0.5-1.8 1.0 0.5-1.8
Amoxicillin-clavulanate 0.8 0.4-1.3 0.7 0.3-1.5 0.8 0.4-1.5
Macrolides 0.6 0.3-1.1 0.8 0.4-1.6 0.7 0.4-1.5
Cephalosporins 0.9 0.6-1.3 0.8 0.5-1.3 0.9 0.6-1.5
At least one antibiotic
0.8
0.7-1.2
1.0
0.7-1.4
1.0
0.7-1.4
aOR = odds ratio.
b CI=95% confidence interval.
c URTIs= upper respiratory tract infections.
d p<0.05.
e LRTIs=lower respiratory tract infections.

Main Article

1The Hercules Project Collaborative Group includes: F. Schettini, D. De Mattia (Bari, Italy); G. P. Salvioli, G. Faldella (Bologna, Italy); G. Caramia, E. Ruffini (Ancona, Italy); E. Reali (Cinisello Balsamo, Italy); R. Longhi (Como, Italy); G. Bona (Novara, Italy); A. Guarino, F. Albano (Napoli, Italy); R. Malvicini (Fidenza, Italy); L. Ziino (Palermo, Italy); I. Barberi, T. Corona (Messina, Italy); P. Pusceddu (Cagliari, Italy); T. Meloni (Sassari, Italy); G. Saggese, and M. Migliaccio (Pisa, Italy).

Top of Page

USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO