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Volume 8, Number 6—June 2002

Research

Epidemiologic Differences Between Cyclosporiasis and Cryptosporidiosis in Peruvian Children

Caryn Bern*Comments to Author , Ynes Ortega†, William Checkley‡§, Jacquelin M. Roberts*, Andres G. Lescano‡§, Lilia Cabrera‡, Manuela Verastegui¶, Robert E. Black§, Charles Sterling, and Robert H. Gilman§
Author affiliations: *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †University of Georgia, Griffin, Georgia, USA; ‡Asociación Benéfica PRISMA, Lima, Peru; §Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; ¶Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; and #University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA;

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Table 3

Associationsa of environmental exposures and infection with coccidian parasites in 368 Peruvian children, February 1995 to December 1998

Child-years of follow-up Cyclosporiasis Cryptosporidiosis
No. of episodes Incidence densityb RR
(95% CI)c p No. of episodes Incidence densityb RR
(95% CI) p
Water truck 45.2 11 0.24 0.85
(0.58, 1.26) 0.2 7 0.22 1.01
(0.77, 1.33) 0.94
Water source outside house 268.7 44 0.16 1.01
(0.56, 1.82) 0.98 65 0.24 0.84
(0.49, 1.45) 0.54
Water connection in house 548.1 114 0.21 Referent 119 0.16 Referent
Defecates in field 298.7 36 0.22 1.00
(0.69, 1.47) 0.99 47 0.29 1.26
(0.97, 1.67) 0.08
Latrine 163.7 54 0.18 0.86
(0.69, 1.47) 0.45 59 0.20 0.96
(0.71, 1.32) 0.85
Flush toilet 380.7 78 0.21 Referent 84 0.22 Referent
Any animal 665.9 147 0.22 1.72
(1.08, 2.72) 0.02 140 0.21 0.97
(0.74, 1.26) 0.82
No animals 223.6 27 0.12 Referent 56 0.25 Referent
Chickens 357.7 76 0.21 1.10
(0.81, 1.49) 0.52 75 0.21 1.0
(0.77, 1.29) 0.99
No chickens 531.9 98 0.18 Referent 121 0.23 Referent
Ducks 245.0 52 0.21 1.07
(0.78, 1.48) 0.64 47 0.19 0.89
(0.67, 1.21) 0.47
No ducks 644.5 122 0.19 Referent 149 0.23 Referent
Any aviand 477.6 108 0.23 1.34
(0.96, 1.87) 0.08 97 0.20 0.91
(0.71, 1.17) 0.48
No avians 412.0 66 0.16 Referent 99 0.24 Referent
Dog 316.9 68 0.22 1.19
(0.88, 1.59) 0.26 70 0.22 0.93
(0.71, 1.21) 0.58
No dog 572.6 106 0.19 Referent 126 0.22 Referent
Guinea pig 37.5 12 0.32 1.56
(0.99, 2.44) 0.05 10 0.27 1.63
(0.89, 2.99) 0.11
No guinea pig 852.0 162 0.19 Referent 186 0.22 Referent
Rabbit 49.6 20 0.40 2.13
(1.23, 3.69) 0.007 11 0.22 1.05
(0.56, 2.0) 0.87
No rabbit 840.0 154 0.18 Referent 185 0.22 Referent

aThe analyses were adjusted for seasonality and age of child.
bEpisodes of infection per child-year of follow-up.
cRR=relative risk; CI=95% confidence intervals.
dAny avian=one or more of the following birds: chickens, ducks, turkeys, pigeons, parrots, or parakeets.

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