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Volume 9, Number 1—January 2003

Research

Epidemic Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Caused by Human Enterovirus 71, Singapore

Kwai Peng Chan*Comments to Author , Kee Tai Goh†, Chia Yin Chong‡, Eng Swee Teo§, Gilbert Lau§, and Ai Ee Ling*
Author affiliations: *Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Republic of Singapore; †National Environment Agency, Singapore, Republic of Singapore,; ‡Kandang Kerbau Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore, Republic of Singapore; §Centre for Forensic Medicine, Health Sciences Authority, Singapore, Republic of Singapore

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Table 3

Virus yield by specimen typea

Specimen type No. specimens
HFMD patients
Non-HFMD patients
Culture + HEV 71 + No. tested Culture + HEV 71 + No. tested
Stool
58
39b
88
11
4
74
Rectal swab
6
5
8
1
1
3
Vesicle
31
27
62
0
0
3
Oral swab
23
15
60
2
0
6
Throat swab
19
16c
50
2
1
9
Nasal aspirate
3
3d
6
1
1
1
Saliva
1
1d
3
0
0
0
Tonsil
2
2
2
0
0
0
Intestine and contents
2
2
5
1
0
6
Brain
1
1
3
1
1
7
Cerebrospinal fluid
0
0
2
5
0
32
Ulcer
1
1
2
0
0
0
Conjunctiva
0
0
1
1
0
1
Blood
0
0
2
0
0
0
Heart
0
0
4
0
0
12
Tracheal swab
0
0
4
0
0
1
Lymph node
0
0
1
0
0
0
Spleen
0
0
2
0
0
0
Lung
0
0
4
0
0
1
Nasal swab
0
0
2
0
0
0
BAL
0
0
0
0
0
1
Total 147 112 311 25 8 157

aHFMD, hand, foot and mouth disease; HEV, human enterovirus; +, positive; EV, echovirus; CMV, Cytomegalovirus; BAL, broncho-alveolar lavage.
bDual isolation of HEV71 and EV25 from one specimen.
cDual isolation of HEV71 and Rhinovirus from one specimen.
dDual isolation of HEV71 and CMV from one specimen. Both double-virus positive specimens were received from the same patient.

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