Cost Effectiveness of a Potential Vaccine for Human papillomavirus
Figure 1. Schematic representation of the decision model. In panel A, the square node at the left represents the vaccination decision. The woman’s health thereafter is simulated by a Markov model. Each month, women are at risk of developing Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, SIL (squamous intraepithelial lesions), or cervical cancer. Women who contract HPV may be infected by a low- or high-risk type. Panel B demonstrates cervical-cancer diagnosis, treatment, and natural history. Throughout a woman’s lifetime, her HPV, SIL, or cervical cancer status can be discovered either through development of symptoms or through routine Pap tests. Panel C shows that women who undergo a Pap test may test negative or positive for SIL.