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Volume 9, Number 1—January 2003

Research

Two Epidemiologic Patterns of Norovirus Outbreaks: Surveillance in England and Wales, 1992–2000

Ben Lopman*Comments to Author , Goutam K Adak*, Mark Reacher*, and David W.G. Brown*
Author affiliations: *Public Health Laboratory Service, London, United Kingdom

Main Article

Table 2

Microbiologic and statistical evidence of foods implicated in outbreaks of Norovirus, England and Wales

Implicated food Microbiologic evidence Cohort study Case-control study Any evidence Total no. of outbreaks in which food vehicle implicated
Oysters
5 (25%)a
9 (45%)
0
14(70%)
20
Poultry
0
6 (67%)
0
6 (67%)
9
Meat
0
3 (60%)
0
3 (60%)
5
Fish
0
3 (50%)
1 (16%)
4 (67%)
6
Salads and vegetables
0
10 (59%)
3 (18%)
13 (76%)
17
Other items
0
16 (55%)
3 (10%)
19 (65%)
29
Total 5 (6%) 47 (55%) 7 (8%) 59 (68%) 86

aPercentages represent outbreaks with evidence per total outbreaks where food vehicle was implicated.

Main Article

Appendix: Surveillance and analysis definitions

Outbreak: an incident in which two or more people, thought to have a common exposure, experience a similar illness or proven infection, at least one of them being ill (22).
General outbreak: an outbreak that affects members of more than one household, or residents of an institution (36).
General outbreak of Norovirus: a general outbreak in which Norovirus is determined to be the causative agent by electron microscopy, RT-PCR, or enzyme immunoassay in one or more affected persons.
Residential facilities: includes residential homes, which provide some assistance in day-to-day living, and nursing homes, which provide care for persons whose infirmity or illness requires nursing care on a regular basis.
Food outlets: commercial food retailers including restaurants, pubs, bars, cafeterias, mobile food vendors, and caterers.

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