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Volume 9, Number 12—December 2003

Research

Risk Factors for Norovirus, Sapporo-like Virus, and Group A Rotavirus Gastroenteritis

Matty AS de Wit*1, Marion PG Koopmans*, and Yvonne THP van Duynhoven*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands

Main Article

Table 1

Risk factors for NV gastroenteritis, prevalence in cases and controls (152 pairs), and univariate and multivariate odds ratios using logistic regression and population-attributable risk fractionsa

NV gastroenteritis Cases
n (%) Controls
n (%) OR uni 95% CI OR multi 95% CI PAR (%)
Food-handling hygieneb


1.3
1.0 to 1.5
1.3
1.0 to 1.7
47
Educational level




n.i.


Low
21 (14.3)
16 (10.9)
1.9
0.9 to 4.0



Intermediate
58 (39.5)
80 (54.4)
1.0
-



High
68 (46.3)
51 (34.7)
2.2
1.2 to 3.9



Participant to daycare center
47 (30.9)
37 (24.7)
1.7
0.9 to 3.3
n.i.


Household member to daycare center
34 (23.5)
21 (14.5)
2.0
1.0 to 3.9
n.i.


Household member to primary school
62 (42.8)
48 (33.1)
1.6
1.0 to 2.7
n.i.


Pets in household
85 (56.3)
102 (67.6)
0.6
0.4 to 1.0
n.i.


Cat as pet
46 (30.5)
61 (40.4)
0.6
0.4 to 1.0
n.i.


No. of household members with gastroenteritisc






17
None
73 (48.3)
130 (85.8)
1.0
-
1.0
-

1
39 (25.8)
15 (10.0)
3.7
1.7 to 8.0
1.2
0.3 to 4.2

>1
39 (25.8)
6 (4.2)
13.1
3.9 to 34.7
10.9
2.0 to 60.5

Contact with persons outside household with gastroenteritisc






56
No
50 (32.9)
101 (66.5)
1.0
-
1.0
-

Yes
57 (37.5)
8 (5.3)
11.4
4.7 to 27.3
12.7
3.1 to 51.8

Do not know
45 (29.6)
43 (28.3)
1.9
1.1 to 3.4
2.5
1.0 to 6.5

Consumption of fishc
46 (34.6)
32 (24.1)
1.8
1.0 to 3.2
n.i.


Consumption of barbecued foodc 1 (1.5) 9 (6.6) 0.2 0.05 to 1.0 n.i.

aNV, norovirus; OR, odds ratio; PAR, population-attributable risk fractions; uni, univariate; multi, multivariate; CI, confidence interval; n.i, not in final model; -, not applicable.
bBasic score (not optimized), higher score indicates less hygienic practices, OR for increase of 1.
cIn the week before onset of symptoms (case-patients), inclusion in study (control).

Main Article

1Current address of first author: Municipal Health Service, Department of Epidemiology, Documentation and Health Promotion, Nieuwe Achtergracht 100, 1018 WT Amsterdam, the Netherlands; email: mdwit@gggd.amsterdam.nl

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