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Volume 9, Number 12—December 2003

Research

Global Distribution of Rubella Virus Genotypes

Du-Ping Zheng*1, Teryl K. Frey*Comments to Author , Joseph Icenogle†, Shigetaka Katow†‡, Emily S. Abernathy*†, Ki-Joon Song§, Wen-Bo Xu¶, Vitaly Yarulin#, R.G. Desjatskova#, Yair Aboudy**, Gisela Enders††, and Margaret Croxson‡‡
Author affiliations: *Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; ‡National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; §Korea University, Seoul, Korea; ¶Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; #Institute of Viral Preparations, Moscow, Russia; **Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel; ††Institute for Virology, Infectiology and Epidemiology, Stuttgart, Germany; ‡‡Auckland Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand

Main Article

Figure 1

Phylogenetic trees. Unrooted tree was made by the maximum likelihood method in the Tree-Puzzle 5.0 program (25,000 puzzling steps for the tree in A; 10,000 puzzling steps for the tree in B) using the complete E1 gene sequence (1179 nt). Bootstrapping values (out of 100) for each node are given. The tree in A was constructed with half of the rubella genotype I (RGI) and all of the RGII sequences (to allow the reader to read the RGI virus designations); the tree in B is a blowup of the RGI node fr

Figure 1. Phylogenetic trees. Unrooted tree was made by the maximum likelihood method in the Tree-Puzzle 5.0 program (25,000 puzzling steps for the tree in A; 10,000 puzzling steps for the tree in B) using the complete E1 gene sequence (1179 nt). Bootstrapping values (out of 100) for each node are given. The tree in A was constructed with half of the rubella genotype I (RGI) and all of the RGII sequences (to allow the reader to read the RGI virus designations); the tree in B is a blowup of the RGI node from a tree constructed with all of the sequences. In B, sequences used in the previous study (8) are designated by an (*), and sequences of viruses isolated before 1980 are in black. Branches are color-coded as follows: RGI Intercontinental (International) 1961–1986 and 1964–1981, black; RGI Europe 1972–1991, gold; RGI Europe 1986–1994 and Europe 1991–1998, green; RGI China, 1999, gold; RGI USA, 1990–2000, light blue; and branch containing sub-branches from Japan 1987–1991, Intercontinental (International) 1997–2000, Japan, Korea 1994–1996, New Zealand, 1991, and Japan-Philippines, 1997, dark blue. Of these, the black Intercontinental (International), green Europe, light-blue USA, and dark-blue branches were recognized in the previous study (the light-blue branch as US-Japan and the dark-blue branch as Japan-Hong Kong).

Main Article

1Current address: Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

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