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Volume 9, Number 9—September 2003

Perspective

Automated, Laboratory-based System Using the Internet for Disease Outbreak Detection, the Netherlands

Marc-Alain Widdowson*†Comments to Author , Arnold Bosman†, Edward van Straten†, Mark Tinga†, Sandra Chaves†, Liesbeth van Eerden†, and Wilfred van Pelt†
Author affiliations: *European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology and Training, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; †National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands

Main Article

Table

List of 40 current surveillance diagnoses generated on ISIS with type of thresholda

Surveillance diagnosis Threshold type
Adenovirus infection
H
Entamoeba histolytica, intestinal infection
H
Entamoeba histolytica, extraintestinal infection
H
Campylobacter spp. infection
H
Campylobacter jejuni infection
H
Chlamydia trachomatis infection
H
Enterovirus infection
H
E. coli O157 infection
F (4)
Giardia lamblia infection
H
Neisseria gonorroeae infection
H
Haemophilus influenza, invasive infection
H
Hepatitis A virus infection
H
Hepatitis B virus infection
H
Hepatitis C virus infection
H
Bordetella parapertussis infection
H
Bordetella pertussis infection
H
Hantavirus infection
F (0)
Listeria monocytogenes infection
F0
Malaria Plasmodium spp infection
H
Malaria, Plasmodium ovale infection
H
Malaria, P. malaria infection
H
Malaria, P. falciparum infection
H
Malaria, P. vivax infection
H
Neisseria meningitis, invasive infection
H
Parainfluenza virus infection
H
Salmonella enterica Paratyphii group A infection
H
S. Paratyphii group B infection
H
S. Paratyphii group C infection
H
S. Typhi infection
F (3)
Respiratory syncytial virus infection
F (10)
Rhinovirus infection
F (10)
Salmonella spp. (nontyphoid) infection
H
S. Typhi infection
H
Shigella spp. infection
F
Staphylococcus aureus, invasive infection
H
Streptococcus group A, invasive infection
H
Streptococcus group B, invasive infection
H
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection
H
Yersinia spp., non-pestis
H
Yersinia enterocolitica H

aISIS, Infectious Disease Surveillance Information System; H, historical algorithm-defined threshold; F, fixed user-defined threshold (cases/week); F0, zero threshold where one case is signaled.

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1Example 1: A surveillance diagnosis for a case of respiratory syncytial virus infection is a positive culture or positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or positive direct immunofluorescence or positive enzyme immunoassay, with all positive tests on the same case-patient within a 6-week period reported as one surveillance diagnosis. Example 2: A surveillance diagnosis for a case of invasive Haemophilus influenza infection is a positive culture from a normally sterile site, with all positive results from the same case in 3 months considered one surveillance diagnosis.

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