Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

Medscape CME Activity

Medscape, LLC is pleased to provide online continuing medical education (CME) for selected journal articles, allowing clinicians the opportunity to earn Medscape CME credit. Medscape, LLC is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide Medscape CME for physicians. The activities listed below have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education through the joint sponsorship of Medscape, LLC and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Medscape, LLC is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Volume 15—2009

Volume 15, Number 12—December 2009

image of the 'Thumbnail' version of the Volume 15, Number 12—December 2009 cover of the CDC's EID journal
Medscape CME Activity
Community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Outpatients, United States, 1999–2006 PDF Version [PDF - 213 KB - 6 pages]
E. Klein et al.
    View Abstract

Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a major problem in US hospitals already dealing with high levels of hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). Using antimicrobial drug susceptibility data for 1999–2006 from The Surveillance Network, we characterized the relationship between outpatient and inpatient levels of CA-MRSA nationally. In outpatients, the frequency of CA-MRSA isolates has increased >7× during 1999–2006, which suggests that outpatients have become a major reservoir for CA-MRSA. However, contrary to results in other reports, although CA-MRSA increases are associated with decreases in the frequency of HA-MRSA in hospitals, the decreases are only modest. This finding suggests that instead of replacing HA-MRSA in the hospital, CA-MRSA is adding to the overall presence of MRSA already found within the hospital population.

    Cite This Article
EID Klein E, Smith DL, Laxminarayan R. Community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Outpatients, United States, 1999–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(12):1925-1930. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1512.081341
AMA Klein E, Smith DL, Laxminarayan R. Community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Outpatients, United States, 1999–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(12):1925-1930. doi:10.3201/eid1512.081341.
APA Klein, E., Smith, D. L., & Laxminarayan, R. (2009). Community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Outpatients, United States, 1999–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(12), 1925-1930. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1512.081341.

Volume 15, Number 11—November 2009

image of the 'Thumbnail' version of the Volume 15, Number 11—November 2009 cover of the CDC's EID journal
Medscape CME Activity
Multicenter GeoSentinel Analysis of Rickettsial Diseases in International Travelers, 1996–2008 PDF Version [PDF - 129 KB - 8 pages]
M. Jensenius et al.
        Cite This Article
EID Jensenius M, Davis X, von Sonnenburg F, Meltzer E, Keystone JS, Leder K, et al. Multicenter GeoSentinel Analysis of Rickettsial Diseases in International Travelers, 1996–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(11):1791-1798. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090677
AMA Jensenius M, Davis X, von Sonnenburg F, et al. Multicenter GeoSentinel Analysis of Rickettsial Diseases in International Travelers, 1996–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(11):1791-1798. doi:10.3201/eid1511.090677.
APA Jensenius, M., Davis, X., von Sonnenburg, F., Meltzer, E., Keystone, J. S., Leder, K....Parola, P. (2009). Multicenter GeoSentinel Analysis of Rickettsial Diseases in International Travelers, 1996–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(11), 1791-1798. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1511.090677.

Volume 15, Number 10—October 2009

image of the 'Thumbnail' version of the Volume 15, Number 10—October 2009 cover of the CDC's EID journal
Medscape CME Activity
Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Iowa, USA PDF Version [PDF - 660 KB - 8 pages]
P. Van De Griend et al.
View Summary

The proportion of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections caused by USA300 increased in 2006.

    View Abstract

We performed antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing and molecular typing on invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates (n = 1,666) submitted to the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory during 1999–2006 as part of a statewide surveillance system. All USA300 and USA400 isolates were resistant to <3 non–β-lactam antimicrobial drug classes. The proportion of MRSA isolates from invasive infections that were either USA300 or USA400 increased significantly from 1999–2005 through 2006 (p<0.0001). During 2006, the incidence of invasive community-associated (CA)–MRSA infections was highest in the summer (p = 0.0004). Age <69 years was associated with an increased risk for invasive CA-MRSA infection (odds ratio [OR] 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.06–12.64), and hospital exposure was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01–0.51).

    Cite This Article
EID Van De Griend P, Herwaldt LA, Alvis B, DeMartino M, Heilmann K, Doern G, et al. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Iowa, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(10):1582-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.080877
AMA Van De Griend P, Herwaldt LA, Alvis B, et al. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Iowa, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(10):1582-1589. doi:10.3201/eid1510.080877.
APA Van De Griend, P., Herwaldt, L. A., Alvis, B., DeMartino, M., Heilmann, K., Doern, G....Diekema, D. (2009). Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Iowa, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(10), 1582-1589. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1510.080877.

Volume 15, Number 8—August 2009

image of the 'Thumbnail' version of the Volume 15, Number 8—August 2009 cover of the CDC's EID journal
Medscape CME Activity
National Outbreak of Acanthamoeba Keratitis Associated with Use of a Contact Lens Solution, United States PDF Version [PDF - 633 KB - 7 pages]
J. R. Verani et al.
    View Abstract

An outbreak of Acanthamoeba keratitis, a rare, potentially blinding, corneal infection, was detected in the United States in 2007; cases had been increasing since 2004. A case–control study was conducted to investigate the outbreak. We interviewed 105 case-patients from 30 states and 184 controls matched geographically and by contact lens use. Available contact lenses, cases, solutions, and corneal specimens from case-patients were cultured and tested by molecular methods. In multivariate analyses, case-patients had significantly greater odds of having used Advanced Medical Optics Complete Moisture Plus (AMOCMP) solution (odds ratio 16.9, 95% confidence interval 4.8–59.5). AMOCMP manufacturing lot information was available for 22 case-patients, but none of the lots were identical. Three unopened bottles of AMOCMP tested negative for Acanthamoeba spp. Our findings suggest that the solution was not intrinsically contaminated and that its anti-Acanthamoeba efficacy was insufficient. Premarket standardized testing of contact lens solutions for activity against Acanthamoeba spp. is warranted.

    Cite This Article
EID Verani JR, Lorick SA, Yoder JS, Beach MJ, Braden CR, Roberts JM, et al. National Outbreak of Acanthamoeba Keratitis Associated with Use of a Contact Lens Solution, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(8):1236-1242. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090225
AMA Verani JR, Lorick SA, Yoder JS, et al. National Outbreak of Acanthamoeba Keratitis Associated with Use of a Contact Lens Solution, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(8):1236-1242. doi:10.3201/eid1508.090225.
APA Verani, J. R., Lorick, S. A., Yoder, J. S., Beach, M. J., Braden, C. R., Roberts, J. M....Roy, S. L. (2009). National Outbreak of Acanthamoeba Keratitis Associated with Use of a Contact Lens Solution, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(8), 1236-1242. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1508.090225.

Volume 15, Number 7—July 2009

image of the 'Thumbnail' version of the Volume 15, Number 7—July 2009 cover of the CDC's EID journal
Medscape CME Activity
Cluster of Sylvatic Epidemic Typhus Cases Associated with Flying Squirrels, 2004–2006 PDF Version [PDF - 691 KB - 7 pages]
A. S. Chapman et al.
    View Abstract

In February 2006, a diagnosis of sylvatic epidemic typhus in a counselor at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania prompted a retrospective investigation. From January 2004 through January 2006, 3 more cases were identified. All had been counselors at the camp and had experienced febrile illness with myalgia, chills, and sweats; 2 had been hospitalized. All patients had slept in the same cabin and reported having seen and heard flying squirrels inside the wall adjacent to their bed. Serum from each patient had evidence of infection with Rickettsia prowazekii. Analysis of blood and tissue from 14 southern flying squirrels trapped in the woodlands around the cabin indicated that 71% were infected with R. prowazekii. Education and control measures to exclude flying squirrels from housing are essential to reduce the likelihood of sylvatic epidemic typhus.

    Cite This Article
EID Chapman AS, Swerdlow DL, Dato VM, Anderson AD, Moodie CE, Marriott C, et al. Cluster of Sylvatic Epidemic Typhus Cases Associated with Flying Squirrels, 2004–2006. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(7):1005-1011. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081305
AMA Chapman AS, Swerdlow DL, Dato VM, et al. Cluster of Sylvatic Epidemic Typhus Cases Associated with Flying Squirrels, 2004–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(7):1005-1011. doi:10.3201/eid1507.081305.
APA Chapman, A. S., Swerdlow, D. L., Dato, V. M., Anderson, A. D., Moodie, C. E., Marriott, C....Dasch, G. A. (2009). Cluster of Sylvatic Epidemic Typhus Cases Associated with Flying Squirrels, 2004–2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(7), 1005-1011. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1507.081305.

Volume 15, Number 6—June 2009

image of the 'Thumbnail' version of the Volume 15, Number 6—June 2009 cover of the CDC's EID journal
Medscape CME Activity
Past, Present, and Possible Future Human Infection with Influenza Virus A Subtype H7 PDF Version [PDF - 501 KB - 7 pages]
J. A. Belser et al.
View Summary

These viruses have resulted in >100 cases of human infection since 2002, and their pandemic potential should not be underestimated.

    View Abstract

Influenza A subtype H7 viruses have resulted in >100 cases of human infection since 2002 in the Netherlands, Italy, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Clinical illness from subtype H7 infection ranges from conjunctivitis to mild upper respiratory illness to pneumonia. Although subtype H7 infections have resulted in a smaller proportion of hospitalizations and deaths in humans than those caused by subtype H5N1, some subtype H7 strains appear more adapted for human infection on the basis of their virus-binding properties and illness rates among exposed persons. Moreover, increased isolation of subtype H7 influenza viruses from poultry and the ability of this subtype to cause severe human disease underscore the need for continued surveillance and characterization of these viruses. We review the history of human infection caused by subtype H7. In addition, we discuss recently identified molecular correlates of subtype H7 virus pathogenesis and assess current measures to prevent future subtype H7 virus infection.

    Cite This Article
EID Belser JA, Bridges CB, Katz JM, Tumpey TM. Past, Present, and Possible Future Human Infection with Influenza Virus A Subtype H7. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(6):859-865. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090072
AMA Belser JA, Bridges CB, Katz JM, et al. Past, Present, and Possible Future Human Infection with Influenza Virus A Subtype H7. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(6):859-865. doi:10.3201/eid1506.090072.
APA Belser, J. A., Bridges, C. B., Katz, J. M., & Tumpey, T. M. (2009). Past, Present, and Possible Future Human Infection with Influenza Virus A Subtype H7. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), 859-865. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1506.090072.

Volume 15, Number 5—May 2009

image of the 'Thumbnail' version of the Volume 15, Number 5—May 2009 cover of the CDC's EID journal
Medscape CME Activity
Increased Risk for Severe Malaria in HIV-1–infected Adults, Zambia PDF Version [PDF - 335 KB - 7 pages]
V. Chalwe et al.
    View Abstract

To determine whether HIV-1 infection and HIV-1–related immunosuppression were risk factors for severe malaria in adults with some immunity to malaria, we conducted a case–control study in Luanshya, Zambia, during December 2005–March 2007. For each case-patient with severe malaria, we selected 2 matched controls (an adult with uncomplicated malaria and an adult without signs of disease). HIV-1 infection was present in 93% of case-patients, in 52% of controls with uncomplicated malaria, and in 45% of asymptomatic controls. HIV-1 infection was a highly significant risk factor for adults with severe malaria compared with controls with uncomplicated malaria (odds ratio [OR] 12.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0–78.8, p = 0.0005) and asymptomatic controls (OR 16.6, 95% CI 2.5–111.5, p = 0.0005). Persons with severe malaria were more likely to have a CD4 count <350/µL than were asymptomatic controls (OR 23.0, 95% CI 3.35–158.00, p<0.0001).

    Cite This Article
EID Chalwe V, Mukwamataba D, Menten J, Kamalamba J, Mulenga M, D’Alessandro U, et al. Increased Risk for Severe Malaria in HIV-1–infected Adults, Zambia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(5):749-755. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081009
AMA Chalwe V, Mukwamataba D, Menten J, et al. Increased Risk for Severe Malaria in HIV-1–infected Adults, Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(5):749-755. doi:10.3201/eid1505.081009.
APA Chalwe, V., Mukwamataba, D., Menten, J., Kamalamba, J., Mulenga, M., D’Alessandro, U....Van Geertruyden, J. (2009). Increased Risk for Severe Malaria in HIV-1–infected Adults, Zambia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(5), 749-755. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1505.081009.

Volume 15, Number 4—April 2009

image of the 'Thumbnail' version of the Volume 15, Number 4—April 2009 cover of the CDC's EID journal
Medscape CME Activity
Acute Conjunctivitis with Episcleritis and Anterior Uveitis Linked to Adiaspiromycosis and Freshwater Sponges, Amazon Region, Brazil, 2005 PDF Version [PDF - 350 KB - 7 pages]
M. O. Mendes et al.
View Summary

An epidemiologic investigation of an ocular disease outbreak among children was linked to the unusual fungus Emmonsia sp., an agent of adiaspiromycosis.

    View Abstract

We conducted an epidemiologic investigation of an outbreak of ocular disease among children to determine whether the disease was linked to Emmonsia sp., a rarely-reported fungus and an agent of adiaspiromycosis. Using an unmatched case–control study design, we compared case-patients with asymptomatic controls randomly selected from the population. Scleral biopsies were analyzed microscopically. Of 5,084 children examined, 99 case-patients were identified; mean age (+1 SD) was 11.0 ± 4.4 years. Symptoms included photophobia (57%), ocular pain (42%), and blurred vision (40%). In the multivariate analysis, risk factors included diving in the Araguaia River (odds ratio 5.2; 95% confidence interval 2.4–12.0). Microscopy identified foreign bodies consistent with adiaconidia. This outbreak probably resulted from foreign-body–type reactions to adiaspiromycosis conidia after initial irritation caused by conjunctival contact with spicules of sponges in the river. Symptomatic children responded to corticosteroid treatment. Adiaspiromycosis is a preventable cause of ocular disease in the Amazon region.

    Cite This Article
EID Mendes MO, Moraes MA, Renoiner EI, Dantas MH, Lanzieri TM, Fonseca CF, et al. Acute Conjunctivitis with Episcleritis and Anterior Uveitis Linked to Adiaspiromycosis and Freshwater Sponges, Amazon Region, Brazil, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(4):633-639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1504.081281
AMA Mendes MO, Moraes MA, Renoiner EI, et al. Acute Conjunctivitis with Episcleritis and Anterior Uveitis Linked to Adiaspiromycosis and Freshwater Sponges, Amazon Region, Brazil, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(4):633-639. doi:10.3201/eid1504.081281.
APA Mendes, M. O., Moraes, M. A., Renoiner, E. I., Dantas, M. H., Lanzieri, T. M., Fonseca, C. F....Hatch, D. L. (2009). Acute Conjunctivitis with Episcleritis and Anterior Uveitis Linked to Adiaspiromycosis and Freshwater Sponges, Amazon Region, Brazil, 2005. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(4), 633-639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1504.081281.

Volume 15, Number 3—March 2009

image of the 'Thumbnail' version of the Volume 15, Number 3—March 2009 cover of the CDC's EID journal
Medscape CME Activity
Clinical Risk Factors for Severe Clostridium difficile–associated Disease PDF Version [PDF - 228 KB - 8 pages]
T. J. Henrich et al.
    View Abstract

Identifying patients who are at high risk for severe Clostridium difficile–associated disease (CDAD) early in the course of their infection may help clinicians improve outcomes. Therefore, we compared clinical features associated with severe versus nonsevere CDAD by retrospectively reviewing records of hospitalized patients whose fecal assays were positive for C. difficile toxin. Of 336 patients, 12.2% had severe disease and 10.1% died from all causes. Regression modeling showed the following to be significantly associated with severe CDAD (p<0.05): age >70 years (odds ratio [OR] 3.35), maximum leukocyte count >20,000 cells/mL (OR 2.77), minimum albumin level <2.5 g/dL (OR 3.44), maximum creatinine level >2 mg/dL (OR 2.47), small bowel obstruction or ileus (OR 3.06), and computed tomography scan showing colorectal inflammation (OR 13.54). These clinical and laboratory markers for severe disease may be useful for identifying patients at risk for serious outcomes or death.

    Cite This Article
EID Henrich TJ, Krakower D, Bitton A, Yokoe DS. Clinical Risk Factors for Severe Clostridium difficile–associated Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(3):415-422. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1503.080312
AMA Henrich TJ, Krakower D, Bitton A, et al. Clinical Risk Factors for Severe Clostridium difficile–associated Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(3):415-422. doi:10.3201/eid1503.080312.
APA Henrich, T. J., Krakower, D., Bitton, A., & Yokoe, D. S. (2009). Clinical Risk Factors for Severe Clostridium difficile–associated Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(3), 415-422. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1503.080312.

Volume 15, Number 2—February 2009

image of the 'Thumbnail' version of the Volume 15, Number 2—February 2009 cover of the CDC's EID journal
Medscape CME Activity
Face Mask Use and Control of Respiratory Virus Transmission in Households PDF Version [PDF - 1.44 MB - 10 pages]
C. MacIntyre et al.
View Summary

Mask use is associated with low adherence, but adherent mask users are significantly protected against seasonal disease.

    View Abstract

Many countries are stockpiling face masks for use as a nonpharmaceutical intervention to control virus transmission during an influenza pandemic. We conducted a prospective cluster-randomized trial comparing surgical masks, non–fit-tested P2 masks, and no masks in prevention of influenza-like illness (ILI) in households. Mask use adherence was self-reported. During the 2006 and 2007 winter seasons, 286 exposed adults from 143 households who had been exposed to a child with clinical respiratory illness were recruited. We found that adherence to mask use significantly reduced the risk for ILI-associated infection, but <50% of participants wore masks most of the time. We concluded that household use of face masks is associated with low adherence and is ineffective for controlling seasonal respiratory disease. However, during a severe pandemic when use of face masks might be greater, pandemic transmission in households could be reduced.
Many countries are stockpiling face masks for use as nonpharmaceutical interventions to reduce viral transmission during an influenza pandemic. We conducted a prospective cluster-randomized trial comparing surgical masks, non–fit-tested P2 masks, and no masks in prevention of influenza-like illness (ILI) in households. During the 2006 and 2007 winter seasons, 286 exposed adults from 143 households who had been exposed to a child with clinical respiratory illness were recruited. Intent-to-treat analysis showed no significant difference in the relative risk of ILI in the mask use groups compared with the control group; however, <50% of those in the mask use groups reported wearing masks most of the time. Adherence to mask use was associated with a significantly reduced risk of ILI-associated infection. We concluded that household use of masks is associated with low adherence and is ineffective in controlling seasonal ILI. If adherence were greater, mask use might reduce transmission during a severe influenza pandemic.

    Cite This Article
EID MacIntyre C, Cauchemez S, Dwyer DE, Seale H, Cheung P, Browne G, et al. Face Mask Use and Control of Respiratory Virus Transmission in Households. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(2):233-241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1502.081167
AMA MacIntyre C, Cauchemez S, Dwyer DE, et al. Face Mask Use and Control of Respiratory Virus Transmission in Households. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(2):233-241. doi:10.3201/eid1502.081167.
APA MacIntyre, C., Cauchemez, S., Dwyer, D. E., Seale, H., Cheung, P., Browne, G....Ferguson, N. (2009). Face Mask Use and Control of Respiratory Virus Transmission in Households. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(2), 233-241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1502.081167.

Volume 15, Number 1—January 2009

image of the 'Thumbnail' version of the Volume 15, Number 1—January 2009 cover of the CDC's EID journal
Medscape CME Activity
Sphingomonas paucimobilis Bloodstream Infections Associated with Contaminated Intravenous Fentanyl PDF Version [PDF - 1.56 MB - 8 pages]
L. L. Maragakis et al.
View Summary

Compounding pharmacies should be required to follow good manufacturing practices, including end-product sterility testing.

    View Abstract

Nationally distributed medications from compounding pharmacies, which typically adhere to less stringent quality-control standards than pharmaceutical manufacturers, can lead to multistate outbreaks. We investigated a cluster of 6 patients in a Maryland hospital who had Sphingomonas paucimobilis bloodstream infections in November 2007. Of the 6 case-patients, 5 (83%) had received intravenous fentanyl within 48 hours before bacteremia developed. Cultures of unopened samples of fentanyl grew S. paucimobilis; the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern was indistinguishable from that of the isolates of 5 case-patients. The contaminated fentanyl lot had been prepared at a compounding pharmacy and distributed to 4 states. Subsequently, in California, S. paucimobilis bacteremia was diagnosed for 2 patients who had received intravenous fentanyl from the same compounding pharmacy. These pharmacies should adopt more stringent quality-control measures, including prerelease product testing, when compounding and distributing large quantities of sterile preparations.

    Cite This Article
EID Maragakis LL, Chaiwarith R, Srinivasan A, Torriani FJ, Avdic E, Lee A, et al. Sphingomonas paucimobilis Bloodstream Infections Associated with Contaminated Intravenous Fentanyl. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(1):12-18. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.081054
AMA Maragakis LL, Chaiwarith R, Srinivasan A, et al. Sphingomonas paucimobilis Bloodstream Infections Associated with Contaminated Intravenous Fentanyl. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2009;15(1):12-18. doi:10.3201/eid1501.081054.
APA Maragakis, L. L., Chaiwarith, R., Srinivasan, A., Torriani, F. J., Avdic, E., Lee, A....Perl, T. M. (2009). Sphingomonas paucimobilis Bloodstream Infections Associated with Contaminated Intravenous Fentanyl. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(1), 12-18. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1501.081054.

TOP