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Volume 18, Number 2—February 2012

Volume 18, Number 2—February 2012   PDF Version [PDF - 4.81 MB - 175 pages]

Perspective

  • Pathogenic Responses among Young Adults during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic PDF Version [PDF - 153 KB - 7 pages]
    G. Shanks and J. F. Brundage
    View Summary

    These responses after secondary exposures caused bacterial pneumonia and most deaths.

        View Abstract

    Of the unexplained characteristics of the 1918–19 influenza pandemic, the extreme mortality rate among young adults (W-shaped mortality curve) is the foremost. Lack of a coherent explanation of this and other epidemiologic and clinical manifestations of the pandemic contributes to uncertainty in preparing for future pandemics. Contemporaneous records suggest that immunopathologic responses were a critical determinant of the high mortality rate among young adults and other high-risk subgroups. Historical records and findings from laboratory animal studies suggest that persons who were exposed to influenza once before 1918 (e.g., A/H3Nx 1890 pandemic strain) were likely to have dysregulated, pathologic cellular immune responses to infections with the A/H1N1 1918 pandemic strain. The immunopathologic effects transiently increased susceptibility to ultimately lethal secondary bacterial pneumonia. The extreme mortality rate associated with the 1918–19 pandemic is unlikely to recur naturally. However, T-cell–mediated immunopathologic effects should be carefully monitored in developing and using universal influenza vaccines.

        Cite This Article
    EID Shanks G, Brundage JF. Pathogenic Responses among Young Adults during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):201-207. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.102042
    AMA Shanks G, Brundage JF. Pathogenic Responses among Young Adults during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):201-207. doi:10.3201/eid1802.102042.
    APA Shanks, G., & Brundage, J. F. (2012). Pathogenic Responses among Young Adults during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 201-207. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.102042.

Research

  • Medscape CME Activity
    Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Denver, Colorado, USA PDF Version [PDF - 367 KB - 9 pages]
    G. E. Nelson et al.
    View Summary

    Pneumococcal prevention strategies should be emphasized during future influenza pandemics.

        View Abstract

    Pneumococcal pneumonia was a complication during previous influenza pandemics but was not evident initially during pandemic (H1N1) 2009. During October 2009 in Denver, Colorado, USA, invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 peaked simultaneously, which suggests a link. We compared cases of IPD in October 2009 with cases in February 2009, the most recent peak month of seasonal influenza. During October 2009, we observed 58 IPD cases, which was 3× the average number of IPD cases that usually occur in October in Denver. Patients with IPD in October 2009 were younger and more likely to have chronic lung disease than patients who had IPD in February 2009; a total of 10/47 patients had influenza, and 33/53 patients had influenza-like illness. Thus, ≈17%–62% cases of IPD may have been associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009. Pneumococcal disease prevention strategies should be emphasized during future influenza pandemics.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nelson GE, Gershman KA, Swerdlow DL, Beall BW, Moore MR. Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Denver, Colorado, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):208-216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110714
    AMA Nelson GE, Gershman KA, Swerdlow DL, et al. Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Denver, Colorado, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):208-216. doi:10.3201/eid1802.110714.
    APA Nelson, G. E., Gershman, K. A., Swerdlow, D. L., Beall, B. W., & Moore, M. R. (2012). Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Denver, Colorado, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 208-216. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110714.
  • Diphtheria in the Postepidemic Period, Europe, 2000–2009 PDF Version [PDF - 288 KB - 9 pages]
    K. S. Wagner et al.
    View Summary

    Efforts must be made to maintain high vaccination coverage.

        View Abstract

    Diphtheria incidence has decreased in Europe since its resurgence in the 1990s, but circulation continues in some countries in eastern Europe, and sporadic cases have been reported elsewhere. Surveillance data from Diphtheria Surveillance Network countries and the World Health Organization European Region for 2000–2009 were analyzed. Latvia reported the highest annual incidence in Europe each year, but the Russian Federation and Ukraine accounted for 83% of all cases. Over the past 10 years, diphtheria incidence has decreased by >95% across the region. Although most deaths occurred in disease-endemic countries, case-fatality rates were highest in countries to which diphtheria is not endemic, where unfamiliarity can lead to delays in diagnosis and treatment. In western Europe, toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans has increasingly been identified as the etiologic agent. Reduction in diphtheria incidence over the past 10 years is encouraging, but maintaining high vaccination coverage is essential to prevent indigenous C. ulcerans and reemergence of C. diphtheriae infections.

        Cite This Article
    EID Wagner KS, White JM, Lucenko I, Mercer D, Crowcroft NS, Neal S, et al. Diphtheria in the Postepidemic Period, Europe, 2000–2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):217-225. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110987
    AMA Wagner KS, White JM, Lucenko I, et al. Diphtheria in the Postepidemic Period, Europe, 2000–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):217-225. doi:10.3201/eid1802.110987.
    APA Wagner, K. S., White, J. M., Lucenko, I., Mercer, D., Crowcroft, N. S., Neal, S....Efstratiou, A. (2012). Diphtheria in the Postepidemic Period, Europe, 2000–2009. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 217-225. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110987.
  • Medscape CME Activity
    Declining Guillain-Barré Syndrome after Campylobacteriosis Control, New Zealand, 1988–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 322 KB - 8 pages]
    M. G. Baker et al.
    View Summary

    Food safety measures that lower incidence of campylobacteriosis might also prevent Guillain-Barré syndrome.

        View Abstract

    Infection with Campylobacter spp. commonly precedes Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We therefore hypothesized that GBS incidence may have followed a marked rise and then decline in campylobacteriosis rates in New Zealand. We reviewed records for 1988–2010: hospitalization records for GBS case-patients and campylobacteriosis case-patients plus notifications of campylobacteriosis. We identified 2,056 first hospitalizations for GBS, an average rate of 2.32 hospitalizations/100,000 population/year. Annual rates of hospitalization for GBS were significantly correlated with rates of notifications of campylobacteriosis. For patients hospitalized for campylobacteriosis, risk of being hospitalized for GBS during the next month was greatly increased. Three years after successful interventions to lower Campylobacter spp. contamination of fresh poultry meat, notifications of campylobacteriosis had declined by 52% and hospitalizations for GBS by 13%. Therefore, regulatory measures to prevent foodborne campylobacteriosis probably have an additional health and economic benefit of preventing GBS.

        Cite This Article
    EID Baker MG, Kvalsvig A, Zhang J, Lake R, Sears A, Wilson N, et al. Declining Guillain-Barré Syndrome after Campylobacteriosis Control, New Zealand, 1988–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):226-233. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111126
    AMA Baker MG, Kvalsvig A, Zhang J, et al. Declining Guillain-Barré Syndrome after Campylobacteriosis Control, New Zealand, 1988–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):226-233. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111126.
    APA Baker, M. G., Kvalsvig, A., Zhang, J., Lake, R., Sears, A., & Wilson, N. (2012). Declining Guillain-Barré Syndrome after Campylobacteriosis Control, New Zealand, 1988–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 226-233. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111126.
  • Pathogenesis of Avian Bornavirus in Experimentally Infected Cockatiels PDF Version [PDF - 270 KB - 8 pages]
    A. K. Piepenbring et al.
    View Summary

    Inoculation induced persistent infection, clinical signs, and seroconversion.

        View Abstract

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) is the presumed causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a major fatal disease in psittacines. However, the influencing factors and pathogenesis of PDD are not known and natural ABV infection exhibits remarkable variability. We investigated the course of infection in 18 cockatiels that were intracerebrally and intravenously inoculated with ABV. A persistent ABV infection developed in all 18 cockatiels, but, as in natural infection, clinical disease patterns varied. Over 33 weeks, we simultaneously studied seroconversion, presence of viral RNA and antigens, infectious virus, histopathologic alterations, and clinical signs of infection in the ABV-infected birds. Our study results further confirm the etiologic role of ABV in the development of PDD, and they provide basis for further investigations of the pathogenetic mechanisms and disease-inducing factors for the development of PDD.

        Cite This Article
    EID Piepenbring AK, Enderlein D, Herzog S, Kaleta EF, Heffels-Redmann U, Ressmeyer S, et al. Pathogenesis of Avian Bornavirus in Experimentally Infected Cockatiels. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):234-241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111525
    AMA Piepenbring AK, Enderlein D, Herzog S, et al. Pathogenesis of Avian Bornavirus in Experimentally Infected Cockatiels. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):234-241. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111525.
    APA Piepenbring, A. K., Enderlein, D., Herzog, S., Kaleta, E. F., Heffels-Redmann, U., Ressmeyer, S....Lierz, M. (2012). Pathogenesis of Avian Bornavirus in Experimentally Infected Cockatiels. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 234-241. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111525.
  • Effect of Surveillance Method on Reported Characteristics of Lyme Disease, Connecticut, 1996–2007 PDF Version [PDF - 304 KB - 6 pages]
    S. Ertel et al.
    View Summary

    The epidemiology of Lyme disease varies by surveillance method.

        View Abstract

    To determine the effect of changing public health surveillance methods on the reported epidemiology of Lyme disease, we analyzed Connecticut data for 1996–2007. Data were stratified by 4 surveillance methods and compared. A total of 87,174 reports were received that included 79,896 potential cases. Variations based on surveillance methods were seen. Cases reported through physician-based surveillance were significantly more likely to be classified as confirmed; such case-patients were significantly more likely to have symptoms of erythema migrans only and to have illness onset during summer months. Case-patients reported through laboratory-based surveillance were significantly more likely to have late manifestations only and to be older. Use of multiple surveillance methods provided a more complete clinical and demographic description of cases but lacked efficiency. When interpreting data, changes in surveillance method must be considered.

        Cite This Article
    EID Ertel S, Nelson RS, Cartter ML. Effect of Surveillance Method on Reported Characteristics of Lyme Disease, Connecticut, 1996–2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):242-247. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.101219
    AMA Ertel S, Nelson RS, Cartter ML. Effect of Surveillance Method on Reported Characteristics of Lyme Disease, Connecticut, 1996–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):242-247. doi:10.3201/eid1802.101219.
    APA Ertel, S., Nelson, R. S., & Cartter, M. L. (2012). Effect of Surveillance Method on Reported Characteristics of Lyme Disease, Connecticut, 1996–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 242-247. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.101219.
  • Characterization of Nipah Virus from Outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2008–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 299 KB - 8 pages]
    M. K. Lo et al.
    View Summary

    New genotyping scheme facilitates classification of virus sequences.

        View Abstract

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans. The initial outbreak of NiV infection occurred in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998–1999; relatively small, sporadic outbreaks among humans have occurred in Bangladesh since 2001. We characterized the complete genomic sequences of identical NiV isolates from 2 patients in 2008 and partial genomic sequences of throat swab samples from 3 patients in 2010, all from Bangladesh. All sequences from patients in Bangladesh comprised a distinct genetic group. However, the detection of 3 genetically distinct sequences from patients in the districts of Faridpur and Gopalganj indicated multiple co-circulating lineages in a localized region over a short time (January–March 2010). Sequence comparisons between the open reading frames of all available NiV genes led us to propose a standardized protocol for genotyping NiV; this protcol provides a simple and accurate way to classify current and future NiV sequences.

        Cite This Article
    EID Lo MK, Lowe L, Hummel KB, Sazzad H, Gurley ES, Hossain M, et al. Characterization of Nipah Virus from Outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2008–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):248-255. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111492
    AMA Lo MK, Lowe L, Hummel KB, et al. Characterization of Nipah Virus from Outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2008–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):248-255. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111492.
    APA Lo, M. K., Lowe, L., Hummel, K. B., Sazzad, H., Gurley, E. S., Hossain, M....Rota, P. A. (2012). Characterization of Nipah Virus from Outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2008–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 248-255. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111492.
  • Unsuspected Dengue and Acute Febrile Illness in Rural and Semi-Urban Southern Sri Lanka PDF Version [PDF - 194 KB - 8 pages]
    M. E. Reller et al.
    View Summary

    Acute dengue may be under-recognized in other regions because of limited studies and tools for rapid diagnosis.

        View Abstract

    Dengue virus (DENV), a globally emerging cause of undifferentiated fever, has been documented in the heavily urbanized western coast of Sri Lanka since the 1960s. New areas of Sri Lanka are now being affected, and the reported number and severity of cases have increased. To study emerging DENV in southern Sri Lanka, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data and acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples from patients >2 years old with febrile illness. We tested paired serum samples for DENV IgG and IgM and serotyped virus by using isolation and reverse transcription PCR. We identified acute DENV infection (serotypes 2, 3, and 4) in 54 (6.3%) of 859 patients. Only 14% of patients had clinically suspected dengue; however, 54% had serologically confirmed acute or past DENV infection. DENV is a major and largely unrecognized cause of fever in southern Sri Lanka, especially in young adults.

        Cite This Article
    EID Reller ME, Bodinayake C, Nagahawatte A, Devasiri V, Kodikara-Arachichi W, Strouse JJ, et al. Unsuspected Dengue and Acute Febrile Illness in Rural and Semi-Urban Southern Sri Lanka. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):256-263. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110962
    AMA Reller ME, Bodinayake C, Nagahawatte A, et al. Unsuspected Dengue and Acute Febrile Illness in Rural and Semi-Urban Southern Sri Lanka. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):256-263. doi:10.3201/eid1802.110962.
    APA Reller, M. E., Bodinayake, C., Nagahawatte, A., Devasiri, V., Kodikara-Arachichi, W., Strouse, J. J....Woods, C. W. (2012). Unsuspected Dengue and Acute Febrile Illness in Rural and Semi-Urban Southern Sri Lanka. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 256-263. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110962.
  • Association of Human Bocavirus 1 Infection with Respiratory Disease in Childhood Follow-up Study, Finland PDF Version [PDF - 316 KB - 8 pages]
    M. Meriluoto et al.
    View Summary

    Since its discovery in 2005, human bocavirus type 1 has often been found in the upper airways of young children with respiratory disease. But is this virus the cause of the respiratory disease or just an innocent bystander? A unique study in Finland, which examined follow-up blood samples of 109 healthy children with no underlying illness starting at birth and until they were 13 years of age, found that acute bocavirus infection resulted in respiratory disease. All children had been infected by age 6. Most retained their antibodies to this virus; some lost them. Children who were later re-exposed to bocavirus did not get sick from this virus. Thus, human bocavirus type 1 is a major cause of respiratory disease in childhood.

        View Abstract

    Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) DNA is frequently detected in the upper airways of young children with respiratory symptoms. Because of its persistence and frequent co-detection with other viruses, however, its etiologic role has remained controversial. During 2009–2011, using HBoV1 IgM, IgG, and IgG-avidity enzyme immunoassays and quantitative PCR, we examined 1,952 serum samples collected consecutively at 3- to 6-month intervals from 109 constitutionally healthy children from infancy to early adolescence. Primary HBoV1 infection, as indicated by seroconversion, appeared in 102 (94%) of 109 children at a mean age of 2.3 years; the remaining 7 children were IgG antibody positive from birth. Subsequent secondary infections or IgG antibody increases were evident in 38 children and IgG reversions in 10. Comparison of the seroconversion interval with the next sampling interval for clinical events indicated that HBoV1 primary infection, but not secondary immune response, was significantly associated with acute otitis media and respiratory illness.

        Cite This Article
    EID Meriluoto M, Hedman L, Tanner L, Simell V, Mäkinen M, Simell S, et al. Association of Human Bocavirus 1 Infection with Respiratory Disease in Childhood Follow-up Study, Finland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):264-271. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111293
    AMA Meriluoto M, Hedman L, Tanner L, et al. Association of Human Bocavirus 1 Infection with Respiratory Disease in Childhood Follow-up Study, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):264-271. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111293.
    APA Meriluoto, M., Hedman, L., Tanner, L., Simell, V., Mäkinen, M., Simell, S....Söderlund-Venermo, M. (2012). Association of Human Bocavirus 1 Infection with Respiratory Disease in Childhood Follow-up Study, Finland. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 264-271. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111293.
  • Lack of Decline in Childhood Malaria, Malawi, 2001–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 289 KB - 7 pages]
    A. Roca-Feltrer et al.
    View Summary

    Despite increased control activities, malaria did not substantially decline.

        View Abstract

    In some areas of Africa, health facility data have indicated declines in malaria that might have resulted from increasingly effective control programs. Most such reports have been from countries where malaria transmission is highly seasonal or of modest intensity. In Malawi, perennial malaria transmission is intense, and malaria control measures have been scaled up during the past decade. We examined health facility data for children seen as outpatients and parasitemia-positive children hospitalized with cerebral malaria in a large national hospital. The proportion of Plasmodium falciparum–positive slides among febrile children at the hospital declined early in the decade, but no further reductions were observed after 2005. The number of admissions for cerebral malaria did not differ significantly by year. Continued surveillance for malaria is needed to evaluate the effects of the increased malaria control efforts.

        Cite This Article
    EID Roca-Feltrer A, Kwizombe CJ, Sanjoaquin MA, Sesay S, Faragher B, Harrison J, et al. Lack of Decline in Childhood Malaria, Malawi, 2001–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):272-278. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111008
    AMA Roca-Feltrer A, Kwizombe CJ, Sanjoaquin MA, et al. Lack of Decline in Childhood Malaria, Malawi, 2001–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):272-278. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111008.
    APA Roca-Feltrer, A., Kwizombe, C. J., Sanjoaquin, M. A., Sesay, S., Faragher, B., Harrison, J....Heyderman, R. S. (2012). Lack of Decline in Childhood Malaria, Malawi, 2001–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 272-278. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111008.

Dispatches

  • Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Associated with Venison PDF Version [PDF - 288 KB - 4 pages]
    J. M. Rounds et al.
    View Summary

    News reports of “E. coli outbreaks” usually refer to Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O157. But there are other types of Shiga toxin–producing E. coli, often called STEC, about which less is known. For these other types of STEC, what is the source? What are the risk factors? An outbreak among 29 high school students in Minnesota provided some answers. The source of this outbreak was a white-tailed deer that had been butchered and eaten at the school. The risk factors for infection were handling raw or eating undercooked venison. To prevent this type of STEC infection, people should handle and cook venison with the same caution recommended for other meats.

        View Abstract

    We investigated an outbreak of non-O157 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli at a high school in Minnesota, USA, in November 2010. Consuming undercooked venison and not washing hands after handling raw venison were associated with illness. E. coli O103:H2 and non-Shiga toxin–producing E. coli O145:NM were isolated from ill students and venison.

        Cite This Article
    EID Rounds JM, Rigdon CE, Muhl LJ, Forstner M, Danzeisen GT, Koziol BS, et al. Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Associated with Venison. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):279-282. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110855
    AMA Rounds JM, Rigdon CE, Muhl LJ, et al. Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Associated with Venison. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):279-282. doi:10.3201/eid1802.110855.
    APA Rounds, J. M., Rigdon, C. E., Muhl, L. J., Forstner, M., Danzeisen, G. T., Koziol, B. S....Smith, K. (2012). Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–producing Escherichia coli Associated with Venison. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 279-282. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110855.
  • High Seroprevalence of Enterovirus Infections in Apes and Old World Monkeys PDF Version [PDF - 255 KB - 4 pages]
    H. Harvala et al.
        View Abstract

    To estimate population exposure of apes and Old World monkeys in Africa to enteroviruses (EVs), we conducted a seroepidemiologic study of serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies against 3 EV types. Detection of species A, B, and D EVs infecting wild chimpanzees demonstrates their potential widespread circulation in primates.

        Cite This Article
    EID Harvala H, McIntyre CL, Imai N, Clasper L, Djoko CF, LeBreton M, et al. High Seroprevalence of Enterovirus Infections in Apes and Old World Monkeys. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):283-286. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111363
    AMA Harvala H, McIntyre CL, Imai N, et al. High Seroprevalence of Enterovirus Infections in Apes and Old World Monkeys. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):283-286. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111363.
    APA Harvala, H., McIntyre, C. L., Imai, N., Clasper, L., Djoko, C. F., LeBreton, M....Simmonds, P. (2012). High Seroprevalence of Enterovirus Infections in Apes and Old World Monkeys. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 283-286. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111363.
  • Multiorgan Dysfunction Caused by Travel-associated African Trypanosomiasis PDF Version [PDF - 196 KB - 3 pages]
    L. E. Cottle et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe a case of multiorgan dysfunction secondary to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection acquired on safari in Zambia. This case was one of several recently reported to ProMED-mail in persons who had traveled to this region. Trypanosomiasis remains rare in travelers but should be considered in febrile patients who have returned from trypanosomiasis-endemic areas of Africa.

        Cite This Article
    EID Cottle LE, Peters JR, Hall A, Bailey J, Noyes HA, Rimington JE, et al. Multiorgan Dysfunction Caused by Travel-associated African Trypanosomiasis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):287-289. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111479
    AMA Cottle LE, Peters JR, Hall A, et al. Multiorgan Dysfunction Caused by Travel-associated African Trypanosomiasis. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):287-289. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111479.
    APA Cottle, L. E., Peters, J. R., Hall, A., Bailey, J., Noyes, H. A., Rimington, J. E....Beadsworth, M. (2012). Multiorgan Dysfunction Caused by Travel-associated African Trypanosomiasis. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 287-289. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111479.
  • Phylogeography of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Europe PDF Version [PDF - 385 KB - 4 pages]
    M. Gyuranecz et al.
        View Abstract

    Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Austria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Romania were placed into an existing phylogeographic framework. Isolates from Italy were assigned to phylogenetic group B.FTNF002–00; the other isolates, to group B.13. Most F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates from Europe belong to these 2 geographically segregated groups.

        Cite This Article
    EID Gyuranecz M, Birdsell DN, Splettstoesser W, Seibold E, Beckstrom-Sternberg SM, Makrai L, et al. Phylogeography of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):290-293. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111305
    AMA Gyuranecz M, Birdsell DN, Splettstoesser W, et al. Phylogeography of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):290-293. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111305.
    APA Gyuranecz, M., Birdsell, D. N., Splettstoesser, W., Seibold, E., Beckstrom-Sternberg, S. M., Makrai, L....Wagner, D. M. (2012). Phylogeography of Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 290-293. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111305.
  • Invasive Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Respiratory Virus Co-infections PDF Version [PDF - 343 KB - 4 pages]
    H. Zhou et al.
    View Summary

    Each year, especially in the winter, many get sick and some die of invasive pneumococcal pneumonia. Does this type of pneumonia increase in the winter because people are in closer contact indoors?  Or are people more susceptible to this bacterial disease after having had a seasonal respiratory virus infection?  A season-by-season analysis found an association between pneumococcal pneumonia and two viruses (influenza and respiratory syncytial virus). The association varied by season and was strongest when the predominant influenza virus subtype was H3N2. Vaccination against influenza and RSV should also help protect against pneumococcal pneumonia.

        View Abstract

    To confirm whether respiratory virus infections increase susceptibility to invasive pneumococcal pneumonia, we examined data from 11 influenza seasons (1994–2005) in the United States. Invasive pneumococcal pneumonia was significantly associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus activities in 5 seasons. Association strength was higher when strain H3N2 was the predominant influenza A virus strain.

        Cite This Article
    EID Zhou H, Haber M, Ray S, Farley MM, Panozzo CA, Klugman KP, et al. Invasive Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Respiratory Virus Co-infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):294-297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.102025
    AMA Zhou H, Haber M, Ray S, et al. Invasive Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Respiratory Virus Co-infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):294-297. doi:10.3201/eid1802.102025.
    APA Zhou, H., Haber, M., Ray, S., Farley, M. M., Panozzo, C. A., & Klugman, K. P. (2012). Invasive Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Respiratory Virus Co-infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 294-297. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.102025.
  • Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection in Pregnant Woman, China, 2013 PDF Version [PDF - 282 KB - 4 pages]
    J. A. Drewe et al.
        View Abstract

    Baboons on South Africa’s Cape Peninsula come in frequent contact with humans. To determine potential health risks for both species, we screened 27 baboons from 5 troops for 10 infections. Most (56%) baboons had antibodies reactive or cross-reactive to human viruses. Spatial overlap between these species poses low but potential health risks.

       
  • Disseminated Infection Caused by Novel Species of Microsporidium, Thailand PDF Version [PDF - 316 KB - 3 pages]
    C. Suankratay et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe a case of microsporidial myositis in a healthy man from Thailand. The small subunit rRNA sequence of this microsporidium is novel and has a close phylogenetic relationship with Endoreticulatus, a genus of lepidopteran microsporidia. Myositis could be caused by more genera of microsporidia than previously known.

        Cite This Article
    EID Suankratay C, Thiansukhon E, Nilaratanakul V, Putaporntip C, Jongwutiwes S. Disseminated Infection Caused by Novel Species of Microsporidium, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):302-304. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111319
    AMA Suankratay C, Thiansukhon E, Nilaratanakul V, et al. Disseminated Infection Caused by Novel Species of Microsporidium, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):302-304. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111319.
    APA Suankratay, C., Thiansukhon, E., Nilaratanakul, V., Putaporntip, C., & Jongwutiwes, S. (2012). Disseminated Infection Caused by Novel Species of Microsporidium, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 302-304. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111319.
  • Determining Mortality Rates Attributable to Clostridium difficile Infection PDF Version [PDF - 245 KB - 3 pages]
    S. S. Hota et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine accuracy of measures of deaths attributable to Clostridium difficile infection, we compared 3 measures for 2007–2008 in Ontario, Canada: death certificate; death within 30 days of infection; and panel review. Data on death within 30 days were more feasible than panel review and more accurate than death certificate data.

        Cite This Article
    EID Hota SS, Achonu C, Crowcroft NS, Harvey BJ, Lauwers A, Gardam MA, et al. Determining Mortality Rates Attributable to Clostridium difficile Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):305-307. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.101611
    AMA Hota SS, Achonu C, Crowcroft NS, et al. Determining Mortality Rates Attributable to Clostridium difficile Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):305-307. doi:10.3201/eid1802.101611.
    APA Hota, S. S., Achonu, C., Crowcroft, N. S., Harvey, B. J., Lauwers, A., & Gardam, M. A. (2012). Determining Mortality Rates Attributable to Clostridium difficile Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 305-307. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.101611.
  • Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infections, United States, 2010–11 PDF Version [PDF - 196 KB - 4 pages]
    A. D. Storms et al.
        View Abstract

    During October 2010–July 2011, 1.0% of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses in the United States were oseltamivir resistant, compared with 0.5% during the 2009–10 influenza season. Of resistant viruses from 2010–11 and 2009–10, 26% and 89%, respectively, were from persons exposed to oseltamivir before specimen collection. Findings suggest limited community transmission of oseltamivir-resistant virus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Storms AD, Gubareva LV, Su S, Wheeling JT, Okomo-Adhiambo M, Pan C, et al. Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infections, United States, 2010–11. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):308-311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111466
    AMA Storms AD, Gubareva LV, Su S, et al. Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infections, United States, 2010–11. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):308-311. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111466.
    APA Storms, A. D., Gubareva, L. V., Su, S., Wheeling, J. T., Okomo-Adhiambo, M., Pan, C....Fry, A. M. (2012). Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Infections, United States, 2010–11. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 308-311. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111466.
  • Extended Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis in a Pediatric Hospital, China PDF Version [PDF - 206 KB - 3 pages]
    Y. Feng et al.
        View Abstract

    Four Cryptosporidium spp. and 6 C. hominis subtypes were isolated from 102 of 6,284 patients in 3 pediatric hospitals in People’s Republic of China. A cryptosporidiosis outbreak was identified retrospectively. The outbreak lasted >1 year and affected 51.4% of patients in 1 hospital ward, where 2 C. hominis subtypes with different virulence were found.

        Cite This Article
    EID Feng Y, Wang L, Duan L, Gomez-Puerta LA, Zhang L, Zhao X, et al. Extended Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis in a Pediatric Hospital, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):312-314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110666
    AMA Feng Y, Wang L, Duan L, et al. Extended Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis in a Pediatric Hospital, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):312-314. doi:10.3201/eid1802.110666.
    APA Feng, Y., Wang, L., Duan, L., Gomez-Puerta, L. A., Zhang, L., Zhao, X....Xiao, L. (2012). Extended Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis in a Pediatric Hospital, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 312-314. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110666.
  • Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Captive Cheetah PDF Version [PDF - 265 KB - 3 pages]
    B. Crossley et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe virus isolation, full genome sequence analysis, and clinical pathology in ferrets experimentally inoculated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus recovered from a clinically ill captive cheetah that had minimal human contact. Evidence of reverse zoonotic transmission by fomites underscores the substantial animal and human health implications of this virus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Crossley B, Hietala S, Hunt T, Benjamin G, Martinez M, Darnell D, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Captive Cheetah. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):315-317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111245
    AMA Crossley B, Hietala S, Hunt T, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Captive Cheetah. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):315-317. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111245.
    APA Crossley, B., Hietala, S., Hunt, T., Benjamin, G., Martinez, M., Darnell, D....Webby, R. (2012). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Captive Cheetah. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 315-317. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111245.
  • Shuni Virus as Cause of Neurologic Disease in Horses PDF Version [PDF - 259 KB - 4 pages]
    C. van Eeden et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine which agents cause neurologic disease in horses, we conducted reverse transcription PCR on isolates from of a horse with encephalitis and 111 other horses with acute disease. Shuni virus was found in 7 horses, 5 of which had neurologic signs. Testing for lesser known viruses should be considered for horses with unexplained illness.

        Cite This Article
    EID van Eeden C, Williams JH, Gerdes T, van Wilpe E, Viljoen A, Swanepoel R, et al. Shuni Virus as Cause of Neurologic Disease in Horses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):318-321. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111403
    AMA van Eeden C, Williams JH, Gerdes T, et al. Shuni Virus as Cause of Neurologic Disease in Horses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):318-321. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111403.
    APA van Eeden, C., Williams, J. H., Gerdes, T., van Wilpe, E., Viljoen, A., Swanepoel, R....Venter, M. (2012). Shuni Virus as Cause of Neurologic Disease in Horses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 318-321. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111403.
  • Plesiomonas shigelloides Infection, Ecuador, 2004–2008 PDF Version [PDF - 212 KB - 3 pages]
    J. C. Escobar et al.
        View Abstract

    Diarrheal risk associated with Plesiomonas shigelloides infection was assessed in rural communities in northwestern Ecuador during 2004–2008. We found little evidence that single infection with P. shigelloides is associated with diarrhea but stronger evidence that co-infection with rotavirus causes diarrhea.

        Cite This Article
    EID Escobar JC, Bhavnani D, Trueba G, Ponce K, Cevallos W, Eisenberg J, et al. Plesiomonas shigelloides Infection, Ecuador, 2004–2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):322-324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110562
    AMA Escobar JC, Bhavnani D, Trueba G, et al. Plesiomonas shigelloides Infection, Ecuador, 2004–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):322-324. doi:10.3201/eid1802.110562.
    APA Escobar, J. C., Bhavnani, D., Trueba, G., Ponce, K., Cevallos, W., & Eisenberg, J. (2012). Plesiomonas shigelloides Infection, Ecuador, 2004–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 322-324. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110562.
  • Melioidosis in Animals, Thailand, 2006–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 246 KB - 3 pages]
    D. Limmathurotsakul et al.
        View Abstract

    We retrospectively estimated the incidence of culture-proven melioidosis in animals in Thailand during 2006–2010. The highest incidence was in goats (1.63/100,000/year), followed by incidence in pigs and cattle. The estimated incidence of melioidosis in humans in a given region paralleled that of melioidosis in goats.

        Cite This Article
    EID Limmathurotsakul D, Thammasart S, Warrasuth N, Thapanagulsak P, Jatapai A, Pengreungrojanachai V, et al. Melioidosis in Animals, Thailand, 2006–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):325-327. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111347
    AMA Limmathurotsakul D, Thammasart S, Warrasuth N, et al. Melioidosis in Animals, Thailand, 2006–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):325-327. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111347.
    APA Limmathurotsakul, D., Thammasart, S., Warrasuth, N., Thapanagulsak, P., Jatapai, A., Pengreungrojanachai, V....Peacock, S. J. (2012). Melioidosis in Animals, Thailand, 2006–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 325-327. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111347.
  • Rickettsia felis Infection in Febrile Patients, Western Kenya, 2007–2010 PDF Version [PDF - 333 KB - 4 pages]
    A. N. Maina et al.
        View Abstract

    To determine previous exposure and incidence of rickettsial infections in western Kenya during 2007–2010, we conducted hospital-based surveillance. Antibodies against rickettsiae were detected in 57.4% of previously collected serum samples. In a 2008–2010 prospective study, Rickettsia felis DNA was 2.2× more likely to be detected in febrile than in afebrile persons.

        Cite This Article
    EID Maina AN, Knobel DL, Jiang J, Halliday J, Feikin DR, Cleaveland S, et al. Rickettsia felis Infection in Febrile Patients, Western Kenya, 2007–2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):328-331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111372
    AMA Maina AN, Knobel DL, Jiang J, et al. Rickettsia felis Infection in Febrile Patients, Western Kenya, 2007–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):328-331. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111372.
    APA Maina, A. N., Knobel, D. L., Jiang, J., Halliday, J., Feikin, D. R., Cleaveland, S....Njenga, M. (2012). Rickettsia felis Infection in Febrile Patients, Western Kenya, 2007–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 328-331. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111372.

Commentaries

  • 1918 Influenza, a Puzzle with Missing Pieces PDF Version [PDF - 240 KB - 4 pages]
    D. M. Morens and J. K. Taubenberger
            Cite This Article
    EID Morens DM, Taubenberger JK. 1918 Influenza, a Puzzle with Missing Pieces. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):332-335. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111409
    AMA Morens DM, Taubenberger JK. 1918 Influenza, a Puzzle with Missing Pieces. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):332-335. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111409.
    APA Morens, D. M., & Taubenberger, J. K. (2012). 1918 Influenza, a Puzzle with Missing Pieces. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 332-335. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111409.

Letters

  • Rapid Diagnosis of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Cuba PDF Version [PDF - 128 KB - 2 pages]
    B. Acosta et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Acosta B, Piñón A, Valdés O, Savón C, Arencibía A, Guilarte E, et al. Rapid Diagnosis of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Cuba. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):336-337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110547
    AMA Acosta B, Piñón A, Valdés O, et al. Rapid Diagnosis of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Cuba. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):336-337. doi:10.3201/eid1802.110547.
    APA Acosta, B., Piñón, A., Valdés, O., Savón, C., Arencibía, A., Guilarte, E....Llop, A. (2012). Rapid Diagnosis of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Cuba. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 336-337. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110547.
  • Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6, Japan, 2011 PDF Version [PDF - 168 KB - 3 pages]
    T. Fujimoto et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Fujimoto T, Iizuka S, Enomoto M, Abe K, Yamashita K, Hanaoka N, et al. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6, Japan, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):337-339. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111147
    AMA Fujimoto T, Iizuka S, Enomoto M, et al. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6, Japan, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):337-339. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111147.
    APA Fujimoto, T., Iizuka, S., Enomoto, M., Abe, K., Yamashita, K., Hanaoka, N....Shimizu, H. (2012). Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A6, Japan, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 337-339. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111147.
  • Human and Porcine Hepatitis E Viruses, Southeastern Bolivia PDF Version [PDF - 148 KB - 2 pages]
    M. A. Purdy et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Purdy MA, Dell’Amico M, Gonzales J, Segundo H, Tolari F, Mazzei M, et al. Human and Porcine Hepatitis E Viruses, Southeastern Bolivia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):339-340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111453
    AMA Purdy MA, Dell’Amico M, Gonzales J, et al. Human and Porcine Hepatitis E Viruses, Southeastern Bolivia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):339-340. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111453.
    APA Purdy, M. A., Dell’Amico, M., Gonzales, J., Segundo, H., Tolari, F., Mazzei, M....Khudyakov, Y. E. (2012). Human and Porcine Hepatitis E Viruses, Southeastern Bolivia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 339-340. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111453.
  • Baylisascaris procyonis Infection in Elderly Person, British Columbia, Canada PDF Version [PDF - 162 KB - 2 pages]
    T. Hung et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Hung T, Neafie RC, Mackenzie I. Baylisascaris procyonis Infection in Elderly Person, British Columbia, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):341-342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111046
    AMA Hung T, Neafie RC, Mackenzie I. Baylisascaris procyonis Infection in Elderly Person, British Columbia, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):341-342. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111046.
    APA Hung, T., Neafie, R. C., & Mackenzie, I. (2012). Baylisascaris procyonis Infection in Elderly Person, British Columbia, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 341-342. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111046.
  • Dengue Surveillance among French Military in Africa PDF Version [PDF - 135 KB - 2 pages]
    F. de Laval et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID de Laval F, Plumet S, Simon F, Deparis X, Leparc-Goffart I. Dengue Surveillance among French Military in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):342-343. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111333
    AMA de Laval F, Plumet S, Simon F, et al. Dengue Surveillance among French Military in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):342-343. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111333.
    APA de Laval, F., Plumet, S., Simon, F., Deparis, X., & Leparc-Goffart, I. (2012). Dengue Surveillance among French Military in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 342-343. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111333.
  • Clonal Spread of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Primary School, Bordeaux, France PDF Version [PDF - 155 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Pereyre et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Pereyre S, Renaudin H, Charron A, Bébéar C. Clonal Spread of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Primary School, Bordeaux, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):343-345. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111379
    AMA Pereyre S, Renaudin H, Charron A, et al. Clonal Spread of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Primary School, Bordeaux, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):343-345. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111379.
    APA Pereyre, S., Renaudin, H., Charron, A., & Bébéar, C. (2012). Clonal Spread of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Primary School, Bordeaux, France. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 343-345. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111379.
  • Risk for Emergence of Dengue and Chikungunya Virus in Israel PDF Version [PDF - 147 KB - 3 pages]
    E. Leshem et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Leshem E, Bin H, Shalom U, Perkin M, Schwartz E. Risk for Emergence of Dengue and Chikungunya Virus in Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):345-347. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111648
    AMA Leshem E, Bin H, Shalom U, et al. Risk for Emergence of Dengue and Chikungunya Virus in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):345-347. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111648.
    APA Leshem, E., Bin, H., Shalom, U., Perkin, M., & Schwartz, E. (2012). Risk for Emergence of Dengue and Chikungunya Virus in Israel. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 345-347. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111648.
  • Possible Pet-associated Baylisascariasis in Child, Canada PDF Version [PDF - 163 KB - 3 pages]
    S. Haider et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Haider S, Khairnar K, Martin DS, Yang J, Ralevski F, Kazacos KR, et al. Possible Pet-associated Baylisascariasis in Child, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):347-349. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110674
    AMA Haider S, Khairnar K, Martin DS, et al. Possible Pet-associated Baylisascariasis in Child, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):347-349. doi:10.3201/eid1802.110674.
    APA Haider, S., Khairnar, K., Martin, D. S., Yang, J., Ralevski, F., Kazacos, K. R....Pillai, D. R. (2012). Possible Pet-associated Baylisascariasis in Child, Canada. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 347-349. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110674.
  • Zika Virus Infection, Cambodia, 2010 PDF Version [PDF - 132 KB - 3 pages]
    V. Heang et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Heang V, Yasuda CY, Sovann L, Haddow AD, Travassos da Rosa A, Tesh RB, et al. Zika Virus Infection, Cambodia, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):349-351. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111224
    AMA Heang V, Yasuda CY, Sovann L, et al. Zika Virus Infection, Cambodia, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):349-351. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111224.
    APA Heang, V., Yasuda, C. Y., Sovann, L., Haddow, A. D., Travassos da Rosa, A., Tesh, R. B....Kasper, M. R. (2012). Zika Virus Infection, Cambodia, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 349-351. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111224.
  • Recombination of Human Coxsackievirus B5 in Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Patients, China PDF Version [PDF - 159 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Han et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Han J, Jiang T, Fan X, Yang L, Yu M, Cao R, et al. Recombination of Human Coxsackievirus B5 in Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Patients, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):351-353. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111524
    AMA Han J, Jiang T, Fan X, et al. Recombination of Human Coxsackievirus B5 in Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Patients, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):351-353. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111524.
    APA Han, J., Jiang, T., Fan, X., Yang, L., Yu, M., Cao, R....Qin, C. (2012). Recombination of Human Coxsackievirus B5 in Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Patients, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 351-353. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111524.
  • Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Tap Water PDF Version [PDF - 113 KB - 1 page]
    E. Hernández-Garduño and K. Elwood
            Cite This Article
    EID Hernández-Garduño E, Elwood K. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Tap Water. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):353. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110455
    AMA Hernández-Garduño E, Elwood K. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Tap Water. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):353. doi:10.3201/eid1802.110455.
    APA Hernández-Garduño, E., & Elwood, K. (2012). Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Tap Water. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 353. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110455.
  • Leishmania infantum and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis, Argentina PDF Version [PDF - 172 KB - 2 pages]
    A. Barrio et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Barrio A, Parodi CM, Locatelli F, Mora MC, Basombrío MA, Korenaga M, et al. Leishmania infantum and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis, Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):354-355. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110924
    AMA Barrio A, Parodi CM, Locatelli F, et al. Leishmania infantum and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):354-355. doi:10.3201/eid1802.110924.
    APA Barrio, A., Parodi, C. M., Locatelli, F., Mora, M. C., Basombrío, M. A., Korenaga, M....Marco, J. D. (2012). Leishmania infantum and Human Visceral Leishmaniasis, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 354-355. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.110924.
  • Plasmodium falciparum in Asymptomatic Immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa, Spain PDF Version [PDF - 126 KB - 2 pages]
    B. Monge-Maillo et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Monge-Maillo B, Norman F, Pérez-Molina J, Díaz-Menéndez M, Rubio J, López-Vélez R, et al. Plasmodium falciparum in Asymptomatic Immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):356-357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111283
    AMA Monge-Maillo B, Norman F, Pérez-Molina J, et al. Plasmodium falciparum in Asymptomatic Immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):356-357. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111283.
    APA Monge-Maillo, B., Norman, F., Pérez-Molina, J., Díaz-Menéndez, M., Rubio, J., & López-Vélez, R. (2012). Plasmodium falciparum in Asymptomatic Immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa, Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 356-357. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111283.
  • Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Circulating in Pigs, Guangxi, China PDF Version [PDF - 132 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Yan et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Yan J, Xiong Y, Yi C, Sun X, He Q, Fu W, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Circulating in Pigs, Guangxi, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):357-359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111346
    AMA Yan J, Xiong Y, Yi C, et al. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Circulating in Pigs, Guangxi, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):357-359. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111346.
    APA Yan, J., Xiong, Y., Yi, C., Sun, X., He, Q., Fu, W....Liu, Q. (2012). Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus Circulating in Pigs, Guangxi, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 357-359. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111346.
  • Cutaneous Melioidosis in Adolescent Returning from Guadeloupe PDF Version [PDF - 126 KB - 2 pages]
    R. Meckenstock et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Meckenstock R, Therby A, Marque-Juillet S, Monnier S, Khau D, Pangon B, et al. Cutaneous Melioidosis in Adolescent Returning from Guadeloupe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):359-360. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111603
    AMA Meckenstock R, Therby A, Marque-Juillet S, et al. Cutaneous Melioidosis in Adolescent Returning from Guadeloupe. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):359-360. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111603.
    APA Meckenstock, R., Therby, A., Marque-Juillet, S., Monnier, S., Khau, D., Pangon, B....Greder-Belan, A. (2012). Cutaneous Melioidosis in Adolescent Returning from Guadeloupe. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 359-360. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111603.
  • Geographic Distribution of Endemic Fungal Infections among Older Persons, United States PDF Version [PDF - 126 KB - 2 pages]
    D. Haselow et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Haselow D, Saccente M, Vyas K, Bariola R, Safi H, Bradsher R, et al. Geographic Distribution of Endemic Fungal Infections among Older Persons, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):360-361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111537
    AMA Haselow D, Saccente M, Vyas K, et al. Geographic Distribution of Endemic Fungal Infections among Older Persons, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):360-361. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111537.
    APA Haselow, D., Saccente, M., Vyas, K., Bariola, R., Safi, H., Bradsher, R....Phillips, J. (2012). Geographic Distribution of Endemic Fungal Infections among Older Persons, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 360-361. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111537.

Books and Media

  • Africa in the Time of Cholera: A History of Pandemics from 1817 to the Present PDF Version [PDF - 126 KB - 1 page]
    I. N. Okeke
            Cite This Article
    EID Okeke IN. Africa in the Time of Cholera: A History of Pandemics from 1817 to the Present. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):362. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111535
    AMA Okeke IN. Africa in the Time of Cholera: A History of Pandemics from 1817 to the Present. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):362. doi:10.3201/eid1802.111535.
    APA Okeke, I. N. (2012). Africa in the Time of Cholera: A History of Pandemics from 1817 to the Present. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 362. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.111535.

About the Cover

  • Memory as Medicine PDF Version [PDF - 218 KB - 2 pages]
    P. Potter
            Cite This Article
    EID Potter P. Memory as Medicine. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(2):363-364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.AC1802
    AMA Potter P. Memory as Medicine. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(2):363-364. doi:10.3201/eid1802.AC1802.
    APA Potter, P. (2012). Memory as Medicine. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 18(2), 363-364. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1802.AC1802.
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