Volume 1, Number 1—January 1995
Factors in the Emergence of Infectious Diseases
|Factor||Examples of specific factors||Examples of diseases|
|Ecological changes(including those due to economic development and land use)||Agriculture; dams,changes in water ecosystems; deforestation/reforestation; flood/drought; famine; climate changes||Schistosomiasis(dams); Rift Valley fever(dams, irrigation); Argentine hemorrhagic fever(agriculture); Hantaan (Korean hemorrhagic fever) (agriculture); hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, southwestern US, 1993 (weather anomalies)|
|Human demographics, behavior||Societal events: Population growth and migration (movement from rural areas to cities); war or civil conflict; urban decay; sexual behavior; intravenous drug use; use of high-density facilities||Introduction of HIV; spread of dengue; spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases|
|International travel commerce||Worldwide movement of goods and people; air travel||"Airport" malaria; dissemination of mosquito vectors; ratborne hantaviruses; introduction of cholera into South America; dissemination of O139 V. cholerae|
|Technology and industry||Globalization of food supplies; changes in food processing and packaging; organ or tissue transplantation; drugs causing immunosuppression; widespread use of antibiotics||Hemolytic uremic syndrome(E.coli contamination of hamburger meat), bovine spongiform encephalopathy;transfusion-associated hepatitis (hepatitis B, C), opportunistic infections in immunosuppressed patients, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from contaminated batches of human growth hormone (medical technology)|
|Microbial adaptation and change||Microbial evolution,response to selection in environment||Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, "antigenic drift" in influenza virus|
|Breakdown in public health measures||Curtailment or reduction in prevention programs; inadequate sanitation and vector control measures||Resurgence of tuberculosis in the United States; cholera in refugee camps in Africa; resurgence of diphtheria in the former Soviet Union|
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