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Issue Cover for Volume 2, Number 2—April 1996

Volume 2, Number 2—April 1996

[PDF - 848 KB - 86 pages]

Perspective

Globalization, International Law, and Emerging Infectious Diseases [PDF - 60 KB - 8 pages]
D. P. Fidler

The global nature of the threat posed by new and reemerging infectious diseases will require international cooperation in identifying, controlling, and preventing these diseases. Because of this need for international cooperation, international law will certainly play a role in the global strategy for the control of emerging diseases. Recognizing this fact, the World Health Organization has already proposed revising the International Health Regulations. This article examines some basic problems that the global campaign against emerging infectious diseases might face in applying international law to facilitate international cooperation. The international legal component of the global control strategy for these diseases needs careful attention because of problems inherent in international law, especially as it applies to emerging infections issues.

EID Fidler DP. Globalization, International Law, and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):77-84. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960201
AMA Fidler DP. Globalization, International Law, and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):77-84. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960201.
APA Fidler, D. P. (1996). Globalization, International Law, and Emerging Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 77-84. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960201.

On Epidemiology and Geographic Information Systems: A Review and Discussion of Future Directions [PDF - 66 KB - 8 pages]
K. C. Clarke et al.

Geographic information systems are powerful automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data. While the systems have been in development for more than 20 years, recent software has made them substantially easier to use for those outside the field. The systems offer new and expanding opportunities for epidemiology because they allow an informed user to choose between options when geographic distributions are part of the problem. Even when used minimally, these systems allow a spatial perspective on disease. Used to their optimum level, as tools for analysis and decision making, they are indeed a new information management vehicle with a rich potential for public health and epidemiology.

EID Clarke KC, McLafferty SL, Tempalski BJ. On Epidemiology and Geographic Information Systems: A Review and Discussion of Future Directions. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):85-92. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960202
AMA Clarke KC, McLafferty SL, Tempalski BJ. On Epidemiology and Geographic Information Systems: A Review and Discussion of Future Directions. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):85-92. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960202.
APA Clarke, K. C., McLafferty, S. L., & Tempalski, B. J. (1996). On Epidemiology and Geographic Information Systems: A Review and Discussion of Future Directions. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 85-92. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960202.

The Evolution and Maintenance of Virulence in Microparasites [PDF - 80 KB - 10 pages]
B. R. Levin

In recent years, population and evolutionary biologists have questioned the traditional view that parasite-mediated morbidity and mortality—virulence—is a primitive character and an artifact of recent associations between parasites and their hosts. A number of hypotheses have been proposed that favor virulence and suggest that it will be maintained by natural selection. According to some of these hypotheses, the pathogenicity of HIV, Vibrio cholerae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the Shigella, as well as Plasmodium falciparum, and many other microparasites, are not only maintained by natural selection, but their virulence increases or decreases as an evolutionary response to changes in environmental conditions or the density and/or behavior of the human population. Other hypotheses propose that the virulence of microparasites is not directly favored by natural selection; rather, microparasite-mediated morbidity and mortality are either coincidental to parasite-expressed characters (virulence determinants that evolved for other functions) or the product of short-sighted evolution in infected hosts. These hypotheses for the evolution and maintenance of microparasite virulence are critically reviewed, and suggestions are made for testing them experimentally.

EID Levin BR. The Evolution and Maintenance of Virulence in Microparasites. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):93-102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960203
AMA Levin BR. The Evolution and Maintenance of Virulence in Microparasites. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):93-102. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960203.
APA Levin, B. R. (1996). The Evolution and Maintenance of Virulence in Microparasites. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 93-102. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960203.

The Infectious Diseases Impact Statement: A Mechanism for Addressing Emerging Diseases [PDF - 47 KB - 6 pages]
E. McSweegan

The use of an Infectious Diseases Impact Statement (IDIS) is proposed for predictive assessments of local changes in infectious diseases arising from human-engineered activities. IDIS is intended to be analogous to an Environmental Impact Statement. The drafting of an IDIS for specific activities, particularly in developing nations, would provide a formal mechanism for examining potential changes in local health conditions, including infected and susceptible populations, diseases likely to fluctuate in response to development, existing control measures, and vectors likely to be affected by human activities. The resulting survey data could provide a rational basis and direction for development, surveillance, and prevention measures. An IDIS process that balances environmental alterations, local human health, and economic growth could substantially alter the nature of international development efforts and infectious disease outbreaks.

EID McSweegan E. The Infectious Diseases Impact Statement: A Mechanism for Addressing Emerging Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):103-108. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960204
AMA McSweegan E. The Infectious Diseases Impact Statement: A Mechanism for Addressing Emerging Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):103-108. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960204.
APA McSweegan, E. (1996). The Infectious Diseases Impact Statement: A Mechanism for Addressing Emerging Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 103-108. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960204.
Synopses

Emerging Disease Issues and Fungal Pathogens Associated with HIV Infection [PDF - 61 KB - 8 pages]
N. M. Ampel

Fungal diseases are increasing among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. Infections due to Candida and Cryptococcus are the most common. Although mucocutaneous candidiasis can be treated with oral antifungal agents, increasing evidence suggests that prolonged use of these drugs results in both clinical and microbiologic resistance. The optimal therapy for cryptococcal meningitis remains unresolved, although initial treatment with amphotericin B, followed by life-long maintenance therapy with fluconazole, appears promising. Most cases of histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis occur in regions where their causative organisms are endemic, and increasing data suggest that a significant proportion of disease is due to recent infection. Aspergillosis is increasing dramatically as an opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients, in part because of the increased incidence of neutropenia and corticosteroid use in these patients. Infection due to Penicillium marneffei is a rapidly growing problem among HIV-infected patients living in Southeast Asia. Although the advent of oral azole antifungal drugs has made primary prophylaxis against fungal diseases in HIV-infected patients feasible, many questions remain to be answered before the preventive use of antifungal drugs can be advocated.

EID Ampel NM. Emerging Disease Issues and Fungal Pathogens Associated with HIV Infection. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):109-116. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960205
AMA Ampel NM. Emerging Disease Issues and Fungal Pathogens Associated with HIV Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):109-116. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960205.
APA Ampel, N. M. (1996). Emerging Disease Issues and Fungal Pathogens Associated with HIV Infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 109-116. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960205.
Dispatches

An Outbreak of Ross River Virus Disease in Southwestern Australia [PDF - 48 KB - 4 pages]
M. Lindsay et al.
EID Lindsay M, Oliveira N, Jasinska E, Johansen CA, Harrington S, Wright A, et al. An Outbreak of Ross River Virus Disease in Southwestern Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):117-120. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960206
AMA Lindsay M, Oliveira N, Jasinska E, et al. An Outbreak of Ross River Virus Disease in Southwestern Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):117-120. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960206.
APA Lindsay, M., Oliveira, N., Jasinska, E., Johansen, C. A., Harrington, S., Wright, A....Smith, D. W. (1996). An Outbreak of Ross River Virus Disease in Southwestern Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 117-120. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960206.

Invasive Penicillin-Resistant Pneumococcal Infections:
A Prevalence and Historical Cohort Study [PDF - 34 KB - 4 pages]
C. B. Kronenberger et al.
EID Kronenberger CB, Hoffman RE, Lezotte DC, Marine WM. Invasive Penicillin-Resistant Pneumococcal Infections:
A Prevalence and Historical Cohort Study. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):121-124. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960207
AMA Kronenberger CB, Hoffman RE, Lezotte DC, et al. Invasive Penicillin-Resistant Pneumococcal Infections:
A Prevalence and Historical Cohort Study. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):121-124. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960207.
APA Kronenberger, C. B., Hoffman, R. E., Lezotte, D. C., & Marine, W. M. (1996). Invasive Penicillin-Resistant Pneumococcal Infections:
A Prevalence and Historical Cohort Study. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 121-124. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960207.

Nosocomial Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Spain [PDF - 51 KB - 5 pages]
J. V. Rullán et al.
EID Rullán JV, Herrera D, Cano R, Moreno V, Godoy P, Peiró EF, et al. Nosocomial Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):125-129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960208
AMA Rullán JV, Herrera D, Cano R, et al. Nosocomial Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):125-129. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960208.
APA Rullán, J. V., Herrera, D., Cano, R., Moreno, V., Godoy, P., Peiró, E. F....Pozo, F. (1996). Nosocomial Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 125-129. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960208.

Application of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis to an International Outbreak of Salmonella agona [PDF - 39 KB - 3 pages]
E. J. Threlfall et al.
EID Threlfall EJ, Hampton MD, Ward LR, Rowe B. Application of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis to an International Outbreak of Salmonella agona. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):130-132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960209
AMA Threlfall EJ, Hampton MD, Ward LR, et al. Application of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis to an International Outbreak of Salmonella agona. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):130-132. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960209.
APA Threlfall, E. J., Hampton, M. D., Ward, L. R., & Rowe, B. (1996). Application of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis to an International Outbreak of Salmonella agona. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 130-132. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960209.

Potential Risk for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: The Isolation of Serotype Dengue-3 in Mexico [PDF - 40 KB - 3 pages]
B. Briseño-García et al.
EID Briseño-García B, Gómez-Dantés H, Argott-Ramírez E, Vázquez-Martínez A, Ibáñez-Bernal S, Madrigal-Ayala G, et al. Potential Risk for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: The Isolation of Serotype Dengue-3 in Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):133-135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960210
AMA Briseño-García B, Gómez-Dantés H, Argott-Ramírez E, et al. Potential Risk for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: The Isolation of Serotype Dengue-3 in Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):133-135. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960210.
APA Briseño-García, B., Gómez-Dantés, H., Argott-Ramírez, E., Vázquez-Martínez, A., Ibáñez-Bernal, S., Madrigal-Ayala, G....Tapia-Conyer, R. (1996). Potential Risk for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: The Isolation of Serotype Dengue-3 in Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 133-135. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960210.

Improved Serodiagnostic Testing for Lyme Disease: Results of a Multicenter Serologic Evaluation [PDF - 41 KB - 5 pages]
R. B. Craven et al.
EID Craven RB, Quan TJ, Bailey RE, Dattwyler R, Ryan RW, Sigal LH, et al. Improved Serodiagnostic Testing for Lyme Disease: Results of a Multicenter Serologic Evaluation. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):136-140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960211
AMA Craven RB, Quan TJ, Bailey RE, et al. Improved Serodiagnostic Testing for Lyme Disease: Results of a Multicenter Serologic Evaluation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):136-140. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960211.
APA Craven, R. B., Quan, T. J., Bailey, R. E., Dattwyler, R., Ryan, R. W., Sigal, L. H....Gubler, D. J. (1996). Improved Serodiagnostic Testing for Lyme Disease: Results of a Multicenter Serologic Evaluation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 136-140. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960211.

Emergence of Bartonella quintana Infection among Homeless Persons [PDF - 34 KB - 4 pages]
L. A. Jackson
EID Jackson LA. Emergence of Bartonella quintana Infection among Homeless Persons. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):141-144. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960212
AMA Jackson LA. Emergence of Bartonella quintana Infection among Homeless Persons. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):141-144. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960212.
APA Jackson, L. A. (1996). Emergence of Bartonella quintana Infection among Homeless Persons. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 141-144. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960212.

The Reemergence of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil [PDF - 35 KB - 2 pages]
J. R. Arias et al.
EID Arias JR, Monteiro PS, Zicker F. The Reemergence of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):145-146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960213
AMA Arias JR, Monteiro PS, Zicker F. The Reemergence of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):145-146. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960213.
APA Arias, J. R., Monteiro, P. S., & Zicker, F. (1996). The Reemergence of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 145-146. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960213.
Commentaries

Molecular Epidemiology of Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia [PDF - 35 KB - 4 pages]
C. B. Beard and T. R. Navin
EID Beard CB, Navin TR. Molecular Epidemiology of Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):147-150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960214
AMA Beard CB, Navin TR. Molecular Epidemiology of Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):147-150. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960214.
APA Beard, C. B., & Navin, T. R. (1996). Molecular Epidemiology of Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 147-150. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960214.

Needed: Comprehensive Response to the Spread of Infectious Diseases [PDF - 13 KB - 1 page]
H. M. Ginzburg
EID Ginzburg HM. Needed: Comprehensive Response to the Spread of Infectious Diseases. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):151. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960215
AMA Ginzburg HM. Needed: Comprehensive Response to the Spread of Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):151. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960215.
APA Ginzburg, H. M. (1996). Needed: Comprehensive Response to the Spread of Infectious Diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 151. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960215.
Letters

Transfusion-Associated Malaria [PDF - 16 KB - 1 page]
F. Taylor
EID Taylor F. Transfusion-Associated Malaria. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960216
AMA Taylor F. Transfusion-Associated Malaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):152. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960216.
APA Taylor, F. (1996). Transfusion-Associated Malaria. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960216.

Reply to F. Taylor [PDF - 16 KB - 1 page]
J. R. Zucker and S. P. Kachur
EID Zucker JR, Kachur SP. Reply to F. Taylor. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960217
AMA Zucker JR, Kachur SP. Reply to F. Taylor. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):152. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960217.
APA Zucker, J. R., & Kachur, S. P. (1996). Reply to F. Taylor. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 152. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960217.

An Outbreak of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome due to Escherichia coli O157:H-: Or Was It? [PDF - 23 KB - 2 pages]
P. Goldwater and K. Bettelheim
EID Goldwater P, Bettelheim K. An Outbreak of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome due to Escherichia coli O157:H-: Or Was It?. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):153-154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960218
AMA Goldwater P, Bettelheim K. An Outbreak of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome due to Escherichia coli O157:H-: Or Was It?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):153-154. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960218.
APA Goldwater, P., & Bettelheim, K. (1996). An Outbreak of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome due to Escherichia coli O157:H-: Or Was It?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 153-154. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960218.

The Dilemma of Xenotransplantation [PDF - 15 KB - 1 page]
C. E. Chastel
EID Chastel CE. The Dilemma of Xenotransplantation. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960219
AMA Chastel CE. The Dilemma of Xenotransplantation. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):155. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960219.
APA Chastel, C. E. (1996). The Dilemma of Xenotransplantation. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 155. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960219.

The Thucydides Syndrome: Ebola Déjà Vu? (or Ebola Reemergent?) [PDF - 20 KB - 2 pages]
P. E. Olson et al.
EID Olson PE, Hames CS, Benenson AS, Genovese EN. The Thucydides Syndrome: Ebola Déjà Vu? (or Ebola Reemergent?). Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):155-156. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960220
AMA Olson PE, Hames CS, Benenson AS, et al. The Thucydides Syndrome: Ebola Déjà Vu? (or Ebola Reemergent?). Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):155-156. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960220.
APA Olson, P. E., Hames, C. S., Benenson, A. S., & Genovese, E. N. (1996). The Thucydides Syndrome: Ebola Déjà Vu? (or Ebola Reemergent?). Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 155-156. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960220.
About the Cover

Volume 2, Issue 2
News and Notes

BSE Meeting at CDC [PDF - 12 KB - 1 page]
EID BSE Meeting at CDC. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960221
AMA BSE Meeting at CDC. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):157. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960221.
APA (1996). BSE Meeting at CDC. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 157. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960221.

CDC Foundation Supports Emerging Infectious Disease Projects [PDF - 15 KB - 2 pages]
C. Stokes
EID Stokes C. CDC Foundation Supports Emerging Infectious Disease Projects. Emerg Infect Dis. 1996;2(2):157-158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960222
AMA Stokes C. CDC Foundation Supports Emerging Infectious Disease Projects. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1996;2(2):157-158. doi:10.3201/eid0202.960222.
APA Stokes, C. (1996). CDC Foundation Supports Emerging Infectious Disease Projects. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2(2), 157-158. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0202.960222.
Page created: September 07, 2011
Page updated: September 07, 2011
Page reviewed: September 07, 2011
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.
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