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Volume 4, Number 4—December 1998

Volume 4, Number 4—December 1998   PDF Version [PDF - 10.56 MB - 186 pages]

Perspective

  • International Editors: Emerging Infectious Diseases—South Africa PDF Version [PDF - 114 KB - 4 pages]
    K. P. Klugman
            Cite This Article
    EID Klugman KP. International Editors: Emerging Infectious Diseases—South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):517-520. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980401
    AMA Klugman KP. International Editors: Emerging Infectious Diseases—South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):517-520. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980401.
    APA Klugman, K. P. (1998). International Editors: Emerging Infectious Diseases—South Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 517-520. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980401.
  • Quasispecies Structure and Persistence of RNA Viruses PDF Version [PDF - 78 KB - 7 pages]
    E. Domingo et al.
        View Abstract

    Viral quasispecies are closely related (but nonidentical) mutant and recombinant viral genomes subjected to continuous genetic variation, competition, and selection. Quasispecies structure and dynamics of replicating RNA enable virus populations to persist in their hosts and cause disease. We review mechanisms of viral persistence in cells, organisms, and populations of organisms and suggest that the critical interplay between host and viral influences (including in some cases the quasispecies organization) is the main driving force for long-term survival of viruses in nature.

        Cite This Article
    EID Domingo E, Baranowski E, Ruiz–Jarabo CM, Martín-Hernández AM, Sáiz JC, Escarmís C, et al. Quasispecies Structure and Persistence of RNA Viruses. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):521-527. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980402
    AMA Domingo E, Baranowski E, Ruiz–Jarabo CM, et al. Quasispecies Structure and Persistence of RNA Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):521-527. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980402.
    APA Domingo, E., Baranowski, E., Ruiz–Jarabo, C. M., Martín-Hernández, A. M., Sáiz, J. C., & Escarmís, C. (1998). Quasispecies Structure and Persistence of RNA Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 521-527. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980402.
  • Ecologic Studies of Rodent Reservoirs: Their Relevance for Human Health PDF Version [PDF - 139 KB - 9 pages]
    J. N. Mills and J. E. Childs
        View Abstract

    Within the past few years, the number of "new" human diseases associated with small-mammal reservoirs has increased dramatically, stimulating renewed interest in reservoir ecology research. A consistent, integrative approach to such research allows direct comparisons between studies, contributes to the efficient use of resources and data, and increases investigator safety. We outline steps directed toward understanding vertebrate host ecology as it relates to human disease and illustrate the relevance of each step by using examples from studies of hosts associated with rodent-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses.

        Cite This Article
    EID Mills JN, Childs JE. Ecologic Studies of Rodent Reservoirs: Their Relevance for Human Health. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):529-537. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980403
    AMA Mills JN, Childs JE. Ecologic Studies of Rodent Reservoirs: Their Relevance for Human Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):529-537. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980403.
    APA Mills, J. N., & Childs, J. E. (1998). Ecologic Studies of Rodent Reservoirs: Their Relevance for Human Health. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 529-537. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980403.
  • Diphtheria in the Former Soviet Union: Reemergence of a Pandemic Disease PDF Version [PDF - 117 KB - 12 pages]
    C. R. Vitek and M. Wharton
        View Abstract

    The massive reemergence of diphtheria in the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union marked the first large-scale diphtheria epidemic in industrialized countries in 3 decades. Factors contributing to the epidemic included a large population of susceptible adults; decreased childhood immunization, which compromised what had been a well-established childhood vaccination program; suboptimal socioeconomic conditions; and high population movement. The role of a change in the predominant circulating strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in this epidemic remains uncertain. Massive, well-coordinated international assistance and unprecedented efforts to vaccinate adults were needed to control the epidemic.

        Cite This Article
    EID Vitek CR, Wharton M. Diphtheria in the Former Soviet Union: Reemergence of a Pandemic Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):539-550. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980404
    AMA Vitek CR, Wharton M. Diphtheria in the Former Soviet Union: Reemergence of a Pandemic Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):539-550. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980404.
    APA Vitek, C. R., & Wharton, M. (1998). Diphtheria in the Former Soviet Union: Reemergence of a Pandemic Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 539-550. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980404.

Synopses

  • Cell-to-Cell Signaling and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections PDF Version [PDF - 174 KB - 10 pages]
    C. Van Delden and B. H. Iglewski
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    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium responsible for severe nosocomial infections, life-threatening infections in immunocompromised persons, and chronic infections in cystic fibrosis patients. The bacterium's virulence depends on a large number of cell-associated and extracellular factors. Cell-to-cell signaling systems control the expression and allow a coordinated, cell-density–dependent production of many extracellular virulence factors. We discuss the possible role of cell-to-cell signaling in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infections and present a rationale for targeting cell-to-cell signaling systems in the development of new therapeutic approaches.

        Cite This Article
    EID Van Delden C, Iglewski BH. Cell-to-Cell Signaling and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):551-560. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980405
    AMA Van Delden C, Iglewski BH. Cell-to-Cell Signaling and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):551-560. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980405.
    APA Van Delden, C., & Iglewski, B. H. (1998). Cell-to-Cell Signaling and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 551-560. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980405.
  • Rotavirus PDF Version [PDF - 356 KB - 10 pages]
    U. D. Parashar et al.
        View Abstract

    Rotavirus, the most common diarrheal pathogen in children worldwide, causes approximately one third of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations and 800,000 deaths per year. Because natural infection reduces the incidence and severity of subsequent episodes, rotavirus diarrhea might be controlled through vaccination. Serotype-specific immunity may play a role in protection from disease. Tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV) (which contains a rhesus rotavirus with serotype G3 specificity and reassortant rhesus-human rotaviruses with G1, G2, and G4 specificity) provides coverage against the four common serotypes of human rotavirus. In clinical trials in industrialized countries, RRV-TV conferred 49% to 68% protection against any rotavirus diarrhea and 61% to 100% protection against severe disease. This vaccine was licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on August 31, 1998, and should be cost-effective in reducing diarrheal diseases in industrialized countries. The vaccine's efficacy and cost-effectiveness in developing countries should be evaluated.

        Cite This Article
    EID Parashar UD, Bresee JS, Gentsch JR, Glass RI. Rotavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):561-570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980406
    AMA Parashar UD, Bresee JS, Gentsch JR, et al. Rotavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):561-570. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980406.
    APA Parashar, U. D., Bresee, J. S., Gentsch, J. R., & Glass, R. I. (1998). Rotavirus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 561-570. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980406.
  • Chlamydia pneumoniae and Cardiovascular Disease PDF Version [PDF - 130 KB - 9 pages]
    L. A. Campbell et al.
        View Abstract

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a ubiquitous pathogen that causes acute respiratory disease. The spectrum of C. pneumoniae infection has been extended to atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. Seroepidemiologic studies have associated C. pneumoniae antibody with coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, carotid artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease. The association of C. pneumoniae with atherosclerosis is corroborated by the presence of the organism in atherosclerotic lesions throughout the arterial tree and the near absence of the organism in healthy arterial tissue. C. pneumoniae has also been isolated from coronary and carotid atheromatous plaques. To determine whether chronic infection plays a role in initiation or progression of disease, intervention studies in humans have been initiated, and animal models of C. pneumoniae infection have been developed. This review summarizes the evidence for the association and potential role of C. pneumoniae in cardiovascular disease.

        Cite This Article
    EID Campbell LA, Kuo C, Grayston JT. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Cardiovascular Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):571-579. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980407
    AMA Campbell LA, Kuo C, Grayston JT. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Cardiovascular Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):571-579. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980407.
    APA Campbell, L. A., Kuo, C., & Grayston, J. T. (1998). Chlamydia pneumoniae and Cardiovascular Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 571-579. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980407.
  • Bacterial Symbiosis in Arthropods and the Control of Disease Transmission PDF Version [PDF - 197 KB - 12 pages]
    C. B. Beard et al.
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    Bacterial symbionts may be used as vehicles for expressing foreign genes in arthropods. Expression of selected genes can render an arthropod incapable of transmitting a second microorganism that is pathogenic for humans and is an alternative approach to the control of arthropod-borne diseases. We discuss the rationale for this alternative approach, its potential applications and limitations, and the regulatory concerns that may arise from its use in interrupting disease transmission in humans and animals.

        Cite This Article
    EID Beard CB, Durvasula RV, Richards FF. Bacterial Symbiosis in Arthropods and the Control of Disease Transmission. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):581-591. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980408
    AMA Beard CB, Durvasula RV, Richards FF. Bacterial Symbiosis in Arthropods and the Control of Disease Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):581-591. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980408.
    APA Beard, C. B., Durvasula, R. V., & Richards, F. F. (1998). Bacterial Symbiosis in Arthropods and the Control of Disease Transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 581-591. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980408.
  • Genetic Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases in Humans: Design of Population- Based Studies PDF Version [PDF - 106 KB - 11 pages]
    L. Abel and A. J. Dessein
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    The spread and clinical manifestations of an infection in human populations depend on a variety of factors, among them host genetics. Familial linkage studies used in genetic epidemiology to identify host genes test for nonrandom segregation of a trait with a few candidate chromosomal regions or any regions in the genome (genomewide search). When a clear major gene model can be inferred and reliable epidemiologic information is collected (e.g., in schistosomiasis), parametric linkage studies are used. When the genetic model cannot be defined (e.g., in leprosy and malaria), nonparametric linkage studies (e.g., sibling-pair studies) are recommended. Once evidence of linkage is obtained, the gene can be identified by polymorphisms strongly associated with the trait. When the tested polymorphism is in strong linkage disequilibrium with the disease allele or is the disease allele itself (e.g., in HIV infection and malaria), association studies can directly identify the disease gene. Finally, the role of the detected polymorphism in causing the trait is validated by functional studies.

        Cite This Article
    EID Abel L, Dessein AJ. Genetic Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases in Humans: Design of Population- Based Studies. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):593-603. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980409
    AMA Abel L, Dessein AJ. Genetic Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases in Humans: Design of Population- Based Studies. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):593-603. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980409.
    APA Abel, L., & Dessein, A. J. (1998). Genetic Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases in Humans: Design of Population- Based Studies. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 593-603. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980409.
  • Insecticide Resistance and Vector Control PDF Version [PDF - 134 KB - 9 pages]
    W. G. Brogdon and J. C. McAllister
        View Abstract

    Insecticide resistance has been a problem in all insect groups that serve as vectors of emerging diseases. Although mechanisms by which insecticides become less effective are similar across all vector taxa, each resistance problem is potentially unique and may involve a complex pattern of resistance foci. The main defense against resistance is close surveillance of the susceptibility of vector populations. We describe the mechanisms of insecticide resistance, as well as specific instances of resistance emergence worldwide, and discuss prospects for resistance management and priorities for detection and surveillance.

        Cite This Article
    EID Brogdon WG, McAllister JC. Insecticide Resistance and Vector Control. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):605-613. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980410
    AMA Brogdon WG, McAllister JC. Insecticide Resistance and Vector Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):605-613. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980410.
    APA Brogdon, W. G., & McAllister, J. C. (1998). Insecticide Resistance and Vector Control. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 605-613. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980410.

Dispatches

  • Mutators and Long-Term Molecular Evolution of Pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 PDF Version [PDF - 56 KB - 3 pages]
    T. S. Whittam et al.
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    It has been proposed that an increased mutation rate (indicated by the frequency of hypermutable isolates) has facilitated the emergence of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Analysis of the divergence of 12 genes shows no evidence that the pathogen has undergone an unusually high rate of mutation and molecular evolution.

        Cite This Article
    EID Whittam TS, Reid SD, Selander RK. Mutators and Long-Term Molecular Evolution of Pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):615-617. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980411
    AMA Whittam TS, Reid SD, Selander RK. Mutators and Long-Term Molecular Evolution of Pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):615-617. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980411.
    APA Whittam, T. S., Reid, S. D., & Selander, R. K. (1998). Mutators and Long-Term Molecular Evolution of Pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 615-617. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980411.
  • Increasing Hospitalization and Death Possibly Due to Clostridium difficile Diarrheal Disease PDF Version [PDF - 88 KB - 7 pages]
    F. Frost et al.
        View Abstract

    This study calculated yearly estimated national hospital discharge (1985 to 1994) and age-adjusted death rates (1980 to 1992) due to bacterial, viral, protozoal, and ill-defined enteric pathogens. Infant and young child hospitalization (but not death) rates in each category increased more than 50% during 1990 to 1994. Age-adjusted death and hospitalization rates due to enteric bacterial infections and hospitalizations due to enteric viral infections have increased since 1988. The increases in hospitalization and death rates from enteric bacterial infections were due to a more than eightfold increase in rates for specified enteric bacterial infections that were uncoded during this period (ICD9 00849). To identify bacterial agents responsible for most of these infections, hospital discharges and outpatient claims (coded with more detail after 1992) were examined for New Mexico's Lovelace Health Systems for 1993 to 1996. Of diseases due to uncoded enteric pathogens, 73% were due to Clostridium difficile infection. Also, 88% of Washington State death certificates (1985 to 1996) coded to unspecified enteric pathogen infections (ICD0084) listed C. difficile infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Frost F, Craun GF, Calderon RL. Increasing Hospitalization and Death Possibly Due to Clostridium difficile Diarrheal Disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):619-625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980412
    AMA Frost F, Craun GF, Calderon RL. Increasing Hospitalization and Death Possibly Due to Clostridium difficile Diarrheal Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):619-625. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980412.
    APA Frost, F., Craun, G. F., & Calderon, R. L. (1998). Increasing Hospitalization and Death Possibly Due to Clostridium difficile Diarrheal Disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 619-625. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980412.
  • Introduction of Aedes albopictus into a La Crosse Virus—Enzootic Site in Illinois PDF Version [PDF - 121 KB - 4 pages]
    U. Kitron et al.
        View Abstract

    In late summer and fall 1997, Aedes albopictus mosquitoes were found in Peoria, Illinois, a long recognized focus of La Crosse virus transmission. Larvae were found in tires and other artificial containers, biting adults were recovered, and eggs were collected in oviposition traps within a 25-ha area. One chipmunk trapped < 0.25 km from the infested area tested positive for neutralizing antibodies against La Crosse virus.

        Cite This Article
    EID Kitron U, Swanson J, Crandell M, Sullivan PJ, Anderson J, Garro R, et al. Introduction of Aedes albopictus into a La Crosse Virus—Enzootic Site in Illinois. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):627-630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980413
    AMA Kitron U, Swanson J, Crandell M, et al. Introduction of Aedes albopictus into a La Crosse Virus—Enzootic Site in Illinois. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):627-630. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980413.
    APA Kitron, U., Swanson, J., Crandell, M., Sullivan, P. J., Anderson, J., Garro, R....Grimstad, P. R. (1998). Introduction of Aedes albopictus into a La Crosse Virus—Enzootic Site in Illinois. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 627-630. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980413.
  • Mycobacterium canettii, the Smooth Variant of M. tuberculosis, Isolated from a Swiss Patient Exposed in Africa PDF Version [PDF - 228 KB - 4 pages]
    G. E. Pfyffer et al.
        View Abstract

    An exceptionally smooth and glossy morphotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was isolated from a 56-year-old Swiss patient with mesenteric tuberculosis. Direct 16S rRNA sequence analysis of the hypervariable signature gene regions revealed a 100% homology to the specific M. tuberculosis complex sequence. Spoligotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses using the insertion sequences IS6110 and IS1081 and the polymorphic GC-rich sequence as additional genetic markers identified the isolate as the novel taxon M. canettii. Like a Somali child with a similar case, this patient probably contracted the infection in Africa, which raises questions about the geographic distribution of M. canettii.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pfyffer GE, Auckenthaler R, van Embden JD, van Soolingen D. Mycobacterium canettii, the Smooth Variant of M. tuberculosis, Isolated from a Swiss Patient Exposed in Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):631-634. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980414
    AMA Pfyffer GE, Auckenthaler R, van Embden JD, et al. Mycobacterium canettii, the Smooth Variant of M. tuberculosis, Isolated from a Swiss Patient Exposed in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):631-634. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980414.
    APA Pfyffer, G. E., Auckenthaler, R., van Embden, J. D., & van Soolingen, D. (1998). Mycobacterium canettii, the Smooth Variant of M. tuberculosis, Isolated from a Swiss Patient Exposed in Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 631-634. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980414.
  • Human Infections with Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Other Than Serogroup O157 in Germany PDF Version [PDF - 54 KB - 5 pages]
    L. Beutin et al.
        View Abstract

    We investigated different types of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) not belonging to serogroup O157 for their role as human pathogens. Non-O157 STEC isolated from 89 human patients in Germany were characterized according to serotypes, virulence markers, and association with human illness. EaeA-positive STEC were isolated from 54 (60.7%) of the patients and were frequently associated with severe diarrheal disease, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and young age. EaeA-negative STEC were found in 35 (39.3%) of the patients and were more associated with clinically uncomplicated cases and adult patients. For pediatric patients, a serotype-independent diagnosis of STEC is recommended.

        Cite This Article
    EID Beutin L, Zimmermann S, Gleier K. Human Infections with Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Other Than Serogroup O157 in Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):635-639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980415
    AMA Beutin L, Zimmermann S, Gleier K. Human Infections with Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Other Than Serogroup O157 in Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):635-639. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980415.
    APA Beutin, L., Zimmermann, S., & Gleier, K. (1998). Human Infections with Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Other Than Serogroup O157 in Germany. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 635-639. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980415.
  • New Orientia tsutsugamushi Strain from Scrub Typhus in Australia PDF Version [PDF - 78 KB - 4 pages]
    D. M. Odorico et al.
        View Abstract

    In a recent case of scrub typhus in Australia, Orientia tsutsugamushi isolated from the patient's blood was tested by sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene. The sequence showed a strain of O. tsutsugamushi that was quite different from the classic Karp, Kato, and Gilliam strains. The new strain has been designated Litchfield.

        Cite This Article
    EID Odorico DM, Graves SR, Currie BJ, Catmull J, Nack Z, Ellis S, et al. New Orientia tsutsugamushi Strain from Scrub Typhus in Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):641-644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980416
    AMA Odorico DM, Graves SR, Currie BJ, et al. New Orientia tsutsugamushi Strain from Scrub Typhus in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):641-644. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980416.
    APA Odorico, D. M., Graves, S. R., Currie, B. J., Catmull, J., Nack, Z., Ellis, S....Miller, D. J. (1998). New Orientia tsutsugamushi Strain from Scrub Typhus in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 641-644. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980416.
  • Streptococcus parasanguinis: New Pathogen Associated with Asymptomatic Mastitis in Sheep PDF Version [PDF - 61 KB - 3 pages]
    J. Fernández-Garayzábal et al.
        View Abstract

    We describe two unusual cases in sheep of subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus parasanguinis. This bacterium has been associated with the development of experimental endocarditis; its presence at relatively high concentrations in apparently healthy sheep milk may pose a health risk in persons with predisposing heart lesions.

        Cite This Article
    EID Fernández-Garayzábal J, Fernández E, Heras AL, Pascual C, Collins M, Domínguez L, et al. Streptococcus parasanguinis: New Pathogen Associated with Asymptomatic Mastitis in Sheep. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):645-647. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980417
    AMA Fernández-Garayzábal J, Fernández E, Heras AL, et al. Streptococcus parasanguinis: New Pathogen Associated with Asymptomatic Mastitis in Sheep. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):645-647. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980417.
    APA Fernández-Garayzábal, J., Fernández, E., Heras, A. L., Pascual, C., Collins, M., & Domínguez, L. (1998). Streptococcus parasanguinis: New Pathogen Associated with Asymptomatic Mastitis in Sheep. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 645-647. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980417.
  • Introduction of HIV-2 and Multiple HIV-1 Subtypes to Lebanon PDF Version [PDF - 105 KB - 8 pages]
    D. Pieniazek et al.
        View Abstract

    HIV genetic variability, phylogenetic relationships, and transmission dynamics were analyzed in 26 HIV-infected patients from Lebanon. Twenty-five specimens were identified as HIV-1 and one as HIV-2 subtype B. The 25 strains were classified into six env-C2-V3 HIV-1 subtypes: B (n = 10), A (n = 11), C (n = 1), D (n = 1), G (n = 1), and unclassifiable. Potential recombinants combining parts of viral regions from different subtypes Aenv/Dpol/Agag, Genv/Apol and the unclassifiable-subtypeenv/ unclassifiable-subtypepol/Agag were found in three patients. Epidemiologic analysis of travel histories and behavioral risks indicated that HIV-1 and HIV-2 subtypes reflected HIV strains prevalent in countries visited by patients or their sex partners. Spread of complex HIV-subtype distribution patterns to regions where HIV is not endemic may be more common than previously thought. Blood screening for both HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Lebanon is recommended to protect the blood supply. HIV subtype data provide information for vaccine development.

        Cite This Article
    EID Pieniazek D, Baggs J, Hu DJ, Matar GM, Abdelnoor AM, Mokhbat JE, et al. Introduction of HIV-2 and Multiple HIV-1 Subtypes to Lebanon. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):649-656. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980418
    AMA Pieniazek D, Baggs J, Hu DJ, et al. Introduction of HIV-2 and Multiple HIV-1 Subtypes to Lebanon. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):649-656. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980418.
    APA Pieniazek, D., Baggs, J., Hu, D. J., Matar, G. M., Abdelnoor, A. M., Mokhbat, J. E....Heneine, W. (1998). Introduction of HIV-2 and Multiple HIV-1 Subtypes to Lebanon. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 649-656. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980418.
  • Sporadic STEC O157 Infection: Secondary Household Transmission in Wales PDF Version [PDF - 71 KB - 5 pages]
    S. M. Parry and R. L. Salmon
        View Abstract

    We conducted a study to quantify and characterize household transmission of Shiga toxin (Vero cytotoxin)– producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157) following sporadic infection in Wales. Through total population surveillance, we identified 83 index case-patients and their household contacts. We screened fecal samples submitted from household contacts for STEC O157 and calculated the household transmission rate for sporadic STEC O157 infection to be 4% to 15%. Household contacts in groups at high risk (particularly children under 5 years of age) present a risk of spreading the infection in the wider community.

        Cite This Article
    EID Parry SM, Salmon RL. Sporadic STEC O157 Infection: Secondary Household Transmission in Wales. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):657-661. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980419
    AMA Parry SM, Salmon RL. Sporadic STEC O157 Infection: Secondary Household Transmission in Wales. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):657-661. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980419.
    APA Parry, S. M., & Salmon, R. L. (1998). Sporadic STEC O157 Infection: Secondary Household Transmission in Wales. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 657-661. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980419.
  • Ehrlichia Infection in Italy PDF Version [PDF - 72 KB - 3 pages]
    M. Nuti et al.
        View Abstract

    Immunoglobulin M seroconversion to Ehrlichia chaffeensis was documented in U.S. citizens bitten by ticks in Sardinia. Seven cases of suspected ehrlichiosis in local residents were not confirmed by laboratory tests. In Alpine areas antibodies to E. phagocytophila were detected in persons at high risk, i.e., foresters (8.6%) and hunters (5.5%), and in controls (l.5%). Of 153 persons bitten by ticks, only one was Ehrlichia antibody-positive after 6 months.

        Cite This Article
    EID Nuti M, Serafini D, Bassetti D, Ghionni A, Russino F, Rombolà P, et al. Ehrlichia Infection in Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):663-665. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980420
    AMA Nuti M, Serafini D, Bassetti D, et al. Ehrlichia Infection in Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):663-665. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980420.
    APA Nuti, M., Serafini, D., Bassetti, D., Ghionni, A., Russino, F., Rombolà, P....Lillini, E. (1998). Ehrlichia Infection in Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 663-665. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980420.
  • Salmonella Enteritidis PT6: Another Egg-Associated Salmonellosis? PDF Version [PDF - 60 KB - 3 pages]
    M. R. Evans et al.
        View Abstract

    Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 6 (PT6) increased dramatically in the United Kingdom during 1997. The sharp rise suggests that PT6 contamination has spread rapidly throughout a basic food commodity; however, the source and food vehicle remain unknown. We present evidence from three outbreaks suggesting a possibile link between PT6 and eggs. Poor documentation of the egg supply network continues to pose problems for public health investigators. Thorough investigation of all future PT6 outbreaks and case-control studies of sporadic infections are needed to confirm the etiology of PT6 infection.

        Cite This Article
    EID Evans MR, Lane W, Ribeiro CD. Salmonella Enteritidis PT6: Another Egg-Associated Salmonellosis?. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):667-669. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980421
    AMA Evans MR, Lane W, Ribeiro CD. Salmonella Enteritidis PT6: Another Egg-Associated Salmonellosis?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):667-669. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980421.
    APA Evans, M. R., Lane, W., & Ribeiro, C. D. (1998). Salmonella Enteritidis PT6: Another Egg-Associated Salmonellosis?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 667-669. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980421.
  • Reemergence of Epidemic Malaria in the Highlands of Western Kenya PDF Version [PDF - 229 KB - 6 pages]
    M. A. Malakooti et al.
        View Abstract

    Hospital records (1990-1997) of a tea company in the Kericho district, western Kenya, showed malaria epidemics almost annually from May to July, with an annual attack rate of 50%, 857 hospitalizations per 100,000 per year, and 42 deaths per 100,000 per year; 32% of deaths in hospitalized patients were caused by malaria. A questionnaire survey (June 1997) of 244 patients hospitalized for malaria showed that only 8% had traveled to an area with known malaria transmission 30 days before diagnosis. The increasing malaria incidence may be due to drug resistance.

        Cite This Article
    EID Malakooti MA, Biomndo K, Shanks GD. Reemergence of Epidemic Malaria in the Highlands of Western Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):671-676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980422
    AMA Malakooti MA, Biomndo K, Shanks GD. Reemergence of Epidemic Malaria in the Highlands of Western Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):671-676. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980422.
    APA Malakooti, M. A., Biomndo, K., & Shanks, G. D. (1998). Reemergence of Epidemic Malaria in the Highlands of Western Kenya. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 671-676. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980422.
  • Murine Typhus in Travelers Returning from Indonesia PDF Version [PDF - 126 KB - 4 pages]
    P. Parola et al.
        View Abstract

    We report the first three documented cases of murine typhus imported into Europe from Indonesia, discuss clues for the diagnosis of the disease, and urge that murine fever be considered in the diagnosis of febrile disease in travelers.

        Cite This Article
    EID Parola P, Vogelaers D, Roure C, Janbon F, Raoult D. Murine Typhus in Travelers Returning from Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):677-680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980423
    AMA Parola P, Vogelaers D, Roure C, et al. Murine Typhus in Travelers Returning from Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):677-680. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980423.
    APA Parola, P., Vogelaers, D., Roure, C., Janbon, F., & Raoult, D. (1998). Murine Typhus in Travelers Returning from Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 677-680. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980423.
  • Differentiating Human from Animal Isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum PDF Version [PDF - 72 KB - 5 pages]
    I. M. Sulaiman et al.
        View Abstract

    We analyzed 92 Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from humans and animals by a polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein 2 gene sequence. Used as a molecular marker, this method can differentiate between the two genotypes of C. parvum and elucidate the transmission of infection to humans.

        Cite This Article
    EID Sulaiman IM, Xiao L, Yang C, Escalante L, Moore A, Beard CB, et al. Differentiating Human from Animal Isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):681-685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980424
    AMA Sulaiman IM, Xiao L, Yang C, et al. Differentiating Human from Animal Isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):681-685. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980424.
    APA Sulaiman, I. M., Xiao, L., Yang, C., Escalante, L., Moore, A., Beard, C. B....Lal, A. A. (1998). Differentiating Human from Animal Isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 681-685. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980424.
  • An Outbreak of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Chile, 1997 PDF Version [PDF - 207 KB - 8 pages]
    J. Toro et al.
        View Abstract

    An outbreak of 25 cases of Andes virus-associated hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was recognized in southern Chile from July 1997 through January 1998. In addition to the HPS patients, three persons with mild hantaviral disease and one person with asymptomatic acute infection were identified. Epidemiologic studies suggested person-to-person transmission in two of three family clusters. Ecologic studies showed very high densities of several species of sigmodontine rodents in the area.

        Cite This Article
    EID Toro J, Vega JD, Khan AS, Mills JN, Padula P, Terry W, et al. An Outbreak of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Chile, 1997. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):687-694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980425
    AMA Toro J, Vega JD, Khan AS, et al. An Outbreak of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Chile, 1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):687-694. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980425.
    APA Toro, J., Vega, J. D., Khan, A. S., Mills, J. N., Padula, P., Terry, W....Ksiazek, T. G. (1998). An Outbreak of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Chile, 1997. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 687-694. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980425.

Commentaries

  • Host Genetics of Infectious Diseases: Old and New Approaches Converge PDF Version [PDF - 42 KB - 3 pages]
    A. V. Hill
            Cite This Article
    EID Hill AV. Host Genetics of Infectious Diseases: Old and New Approaches Converge. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):695-697. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980426
    AMA Hill AV. Host Genetics of Infectious Diseases: Old and New Approaches Converge. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):695-697. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980426.
    APA Hill, A. V. (1998). Host Genetics of Infectious Diseases: Old and New Approaches Converge. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 695-697. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980426.
  • Does Restricted Distribution Limit Access and Coverage of Yellow Fever Vaccine in the United States? PDF Version [PDF - 79 KB - 5 pages]
    T. P. Monath et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Monath TP, Giesberg JA, Fierros EG. Does Restricted Distribution Limit Access and Coverage of Yellow Fever Vaccine in the United States?. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):698-702. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980427
    AMA Monath TP, Giesberg JA, Fierros EG. Does Restricted Distribution Limit Access and Coverage of Yellow Fever Vaccine in the United States?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):698-702. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980427.
    APA Monath, T. P., Giesberg, J. A., & Fierros, E. G. (1998). Does Restricted Distribution Limit Access and Coverage of Yellow Fever Vaccine in the United States?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 698-702. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980427.

Letters

  • Aedes aegypti in Tucson, Arizona PDF Version [PDF - 66 KB - 2 pages]
    T. M. Fink et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Fink TM, Hau B, Baird BL, Palmer S, Kaplan S, Ramberg FB, et al. Aedes aegypti in Tucson, Arizona. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):703-704. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980428
    AMA Fink TM, Hau B, Baird BL, et al. Aedes aegypti in Tucson, Arizona. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):703-704. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980428.
    APA Fink, T. M., Hau, B., Baird, B. L., Palmer, S., Kaplan, S., Ramberg, F. B....Hagedorn, H. (1998). Aedes aegypti in Tucson, Arizona. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 703-704. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980428.
  • Can the Military Contribute to Global Surveillance and Control of Infectious Diseases? PDF Version [PDF - 66 KB - 2 pages]
    R. D'Amelio and D. L. Heymann
            Cite This Article
    EID D'Amelio R, Heymann DL. Can the Military Contribute to Global Surveillance and Control of Infectious Diseases?. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):704-705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980429
    AMA D'Amelio R, Heymann DL. Can the Military Contribute to Global Surveillance and Control of Infectious Diseases?. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):704-705. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980429.
    APA D'Amelio, R., & Heymann, D. L. (1998). Can the Military Contribute to Global Surveillance and Control of Infectious Diseases?. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 704-705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980429.
  • Dual Infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis and a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia: A Case Report PDF Version [PDF - 62 KB - 1 page]
    A. J. Sulzer
            Cite This Article
    EID Sulzer AJ. Dual Infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis and a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia: A Case Report. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980430
    AMA Sulzer AJ. Dual Infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis and a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia: A Case Report. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):705. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980430.
    APA Sulzer, A. J. (1998). Dual Infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis and a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia: A Case Report. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 705. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980430.
  • Dual Infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis and a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia: A Case Report—Reply to Dr. Sulzer PDF Version [PDF - 62 KB - 1 page]
    D. J. Sexton and D. H. Walker
            Cite This Article
    EID Sexton DJ, Walker DH. Dual Infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis and a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia: A Case Report—Reply to Dr. Sulzer. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980431
    AMA Sexton DJ, Walker DH. Dual Infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis and a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia: A Case Report—Reply to Dr. Sulzer. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):706. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980431.
    APA Sexton, D. J., & Walker, D. H. (1998). Dual Infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis and a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia: A Case Report—Reply to Dr. Sulzer. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 706. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980431.
  • Hospitalizations after the Gulf War—Reply to K.M. Leisure et al. PDF Version [PDF - 59 KB - 1 page]
    J. D. Knoke and G. C. Gray
            Cite This Article
    EID Knoke JD, Gray GC. Hospitalizations after the Gulf War—Reply to K.M. Leisure et al.. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980435
    AMA Knoke JD, Gray GC. Hospitalizations after the Gulf War—Reply to K.M. Leisure et al.. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):709. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980435.
    APA Knoke, J. D., & Gray, G. C. (1998). Hospitalizations after the Gulf War—Reply to K.M. Leisure et al.. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 709. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980435.
  • Reemergence of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the Republic of Korea PDF Version [PDF - 59 KB - 1 page]
    P. S. Brachman
            Cite This Article
    EID Brachman PS. Reemergence of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the Republic of Korea. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980432
    AMA Brachman PS. Reemergence of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the Republic of Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):707. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980432.
    APA Brachman, P. S. (1998). Reemergence of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the Republic of Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980432.
  • Paratyphoid Fever PDF Version [PDF - 59 KB - 1 page]
    M. R. Wallace
            Cite This Article
    EID Wallace MR. Paratyphoid Fever. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980433
    AMA Wallace MR. Paratyphoid Fever. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):707. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980433.
    APA Wallace, M. R. (1998). Paratyphoid Fever. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980433.
  • Hospitalizations After the Persian Gulf War PDF Version [PDF - 67 KB - 1 page]
    K. M. Leisure et al.
            Cite This Article
    EID Leisure KM, Nicolson NL, Nicolson GL. Hospitalizations After the Persian Gulf War. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980434
    AMA Leisure KM, Nicolson NL, Nicolson GL. Hospitalizations After the Persian Gulf War. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):707. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980434.
    APA Leisure, K. M., Nicolson, N. L., & Nicolson, G. L. (1998). Hospitalizations After the Persian Gulf War. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 707. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980434.

Books and Media

  • HIV Nursing and Symptom Management PDF Version [PDF - 26 KB - 1 page]
    A. C. Moorman
            Cite This Article
    EID Moorman AC. HIV Nursing and Symptom Management. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4(4):710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980436
    AMA Moorman AC. HIV Nursing and Symptom Management. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(4):710. doi:10.3201/eid0404.980436.
    APA Moorman, A. C. (1998). HIV Nursing and Symptom Management. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(4), 710. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0404.980436.

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