About CDC Yellow Book 2024

yellow book 2023

Order a print copy of CDC Yellow Book 2024 from Oxford University Press and other major online booksellers such as Amazon and Barnes & Nobles.

Yellow Book 2024 cover

For over half a century, the CDC Yellow Book has been a trusted resource, providing international travelers and clinicians with expert guidance for safe and healthy travel abroad. Along with disease-specific prevention and treatment recommendations, this comprehensive reference text provides readers with the background and context needed to understand and address health threats associated with all types of international travel.

Featured in this edition:

  • Precautions for international travelers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic
  • Updates on practicing travel medicine in a virtual environment
  • New standalone vaccine tables for bacterial and viral diseases
  • Updated travel health recommendations for highly allergic, immunocompromised, and chronically ill travelers, travelers with substance use disorders, and medical tourists
  • Country-specific mosquito avoidance, yellow fever vaccine, and malaria prevention recommendations

For more information, please visit the CDC Yellow Book 2024 website.



To produce a book subtitled "Health Information for International Travel" during an ongoing pandemic takes the right mix of folly, optimism, pluck, and prescience. And who could have predicted that just 2 weeks after delivering our draft to the publisher, the first cases of monkeypox heralding an international outbreak would be diagnosed? Using a travel analogy, putting together CDC Yellow Book 2024 has been a bit like running along the platform and jumping to catch a moving train. After scrapping our plans for CDC Yellow Book 2022 (the release of which had been slated to coincide with the May 2021 Conference of the International Society of Travel Medicine meeting) we rededicated ourselves to publishing this current edition. Written, reviewed, and edited by clinicians and public health professionals over 12 months (roughly April 2021–April 2022), this book reflects not only their generosity but also their steadfast commitment to the philosophy behind this ongoing project.

To all who participated, the editorial team would like to express its sincerest thanks. We would also like to extend our gratitude to Drs. Elise Beltrami and Nicole Cohen for their meticulous reading of the entire volume. They, too, completed their thorough reviews while juggling multiple pandemic-related responsibilities. Their combined breadth and depth of knowledge, keen eye for detail, and artful knack for inserting well-placed, insightful comments significantly improved the manuscript.

The CDC Yellow Book 2024 editorial team would also like to recognize authors for their past contributions to the chapters in CDC Yellow Book 2020. Please refer to each chapter to find these acknowledgements.


This edition of the CDC Yellow Book continues a longstanding tradition of providing guidance for the practice of travel medicine. It also serves as a source of US government recommendations for immunizations and prophylaxis for international travel. The goal for this edition, as for previous editions, is to serve as a comprehensive resource for clinicians looking for answers to travel health-related questions. We believe you will find CDC Yellow Book 2024 lives up to the high standards set by its predecessors.

The COVID-19 pandemic interrupted the writing, editing, and publishing of the CDC Yellow Book, delaying the normal biennial production cycle by 2 years. COVID-19 has also created authorship and editorial challenges due to the frequently changing guidance around management, prevention, and treatment of this disease. With the understanding that the science and epidemiology of this disease will continue to evolve, we have endeavored to provide the most "evergreen" COVID-19 information available; for the most up-to-date details on COVID-19, we encourage you to visit the CDC website.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Rochelle Walensky, MD, MPH, Director

National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
Daniel Jernigan, MD, MPH, Acting Director

Division of Global Migration and Quarantine
Lisa Rotz, MD, Acting Director

Travelers' Health Branch
Cindy Friedman, MD, Chief

CDC Yellow Book Editorial Team

Editor in Chief, Print
Jeffrey Nemhauser, MD

Editor in Chief, Digital
Eric Halsey, MD

Senior Medical Editor
Regina LaRocque, MD, MPH

Medical Editors
Francisco Alvarado-Ramy, MD
Kristina Angelo, DO, MPH&TM
Charles Ericsson, MD
Alida Gertz, MD, MPH, DTM&H
Phyllis Kozarsky, MD
Stephen Ostroff, MD
Edward Ryan, MD, DTM&H
David Shlim, MD
William Stauffer, MD, MPH
Michelle Weinberg, MD, MPH
Mary Elizabeth Wilson, MD

Managing Editors
Suraj Arshanapally, MPH
Jane Keir, MPH
Laura Leidel, RN, FNP-C, MSN, MPH

Assistant Managing Editor
Samantha Crowe, MPH

Technical Editor
Amy Guinn, MA

Marielle (Ellie) Glynn, MS, MAS


Abanyie, Francisca
Abe, Karon
Acosta, Anna
Adams, Laura
Ali, Ibne
Allen Tchoukalov, Jessica
Albalak, Rachel
Alvarez, Bianca
Angelo, Kristina
Ansari, Armin
Anstey, Erica
Appiah, Grace
Arshanapally, Suraj
Aubert, Rachael
Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo
Ballesteros, Michael
Barton Behravesh, Casey
Beeler, Jennifer (Jenna)
Benedict, Kaitlin
Benedict, Katharine
Bennett, Sarah
Biggs, Holly
Blain, Amy
Blaney, David
Blanton, Jesse
Bonilla, Luis
Brown, Ashley
Brown, Clive
Bruce, Beau
Buchacz, Katarzyna (Kate)
Cabada, Miguel
Caceres, Diego
Cahill, Eric
Cantey, Paul
Chancey, Rebecca
Chang, Arthur
Charles, Macarthur
Chen, Chung (Ken)
Chen, Tai-Ho
Chiller, Tom
Choi, Mary Joung
Collins, Jennifer
Cope, Jennifer
Cossaboom, Caitlin
Crist, Matthew
Do, Trang
Dokubo, Emily Kainne
Desai, Meghna
Dubray, Christine
Dziuban, Eric
Edens, William (Chris)
Eidex, Rachel
Estívariz, Concepción
Farag, Noha
Farrar, Jennifer Loo
Fields, Patricia (Patti)
Finlay, Alyssa
Fischer, Marc
Francois Watkins, Louise
Freedman, Mark
Freeland, Amy
Friedman, Cindy
Gaines, Joanna
Galang, Romeo
Galland, G. Gale
Galloway, Renee
García, Macarena
Garcia Williams, Amanda
Gastañaduy, Paul
Gee, Jay
Geissler, Aimee
Gershman, Mark
Gertz, Alida
Ghai, Ria
Gimnig, John
Gleason, Brigette
Glynn, Marielle (Ellie)
Gold, Jeremy
Goodson, James
Gould, Carolyn
Gould, Philip
Green, Michael
Griffin, Patricia
Guagliardo, Sarah Anne
Gutelius, Bruce
Hall, Aron
Hallett, Christy
Ham, D. Cal
Harris, Aaron
Havers, Fiona
Heffelfinger, James
Hendricks, Kate
Herman-Roloff, Amy
Hickman, Tanesha
Hill, Vincent
Hills, Susan
Hlavsa, Michele
Hughes, Michael
Jackson, Brendan
Jentes, Emily
Jereb, John
Juin, Stanley
Kamb, Mary
Kasule, Juliet
Kersh, Gilbert
Kharod, Grishma
Kim, Bryan
Kim, Lindsay
Koama, Timbila
Kroger, Andrew
Kuai, David
Lanzieri, Tatiana
Lash, R. Ryan
Laughlin, Mark
Le, Binh
Leidel, Laura
Leung, Jessica
Lindsey, Nicole
Liu, Lindy
Logan, Naeemah
Lutgring, Joseph
Macedo de Oliveira, Alexandre
Maloney, Susan
Marano, Nina
Marin, Mona
Marlow, Mariel
Marston, Chung
Martin, Diana
Martin, Stacey
McCollum, Andrea
McCormick, David
McNamara, Lucy
Mead, Paul
Midgley, Claire
Minta, Anna
Mintz, Eric
Mirza, Sara
Mitchell, Tarissa
Mmbuji, Peter
Montgomery, Susan
Montiel, Sonia
Morales, Michelle
Moser, Kathleen
Mott, Joshua
Mutebi, John-Paul
Neblett Fanfair, Robyn
Negrón, María
Nelson, Christina
Nelson, Noele
Nicholson, William
Oduyebo, Titilope
Ojwang, Joseph
Owens, Jasmine
Paddock, Christopher
Park, Ina
Parker, Erin
Payne, Daniel
Paz-Bailey, Gabriela
Pennington, Audrey
Perelygina, Ludmila
Peters, Philip
Petersen, Brett
Phippard, Alba
Pieracci, Emily
Pindyck, Talia
Plumb, Ian
Powers, Ann
Quilter, Laura
Rabold, Elizabeth
Rao, Agam
Reef, Susan
Regan, Joanna
Reno, Hilary
Rey, Araceli
Reyes, Nimia
Rizwan, Aisha
Roellig, Dawn
Routh, Janell
Roy, Sharon
Sanchez-Gonzalez, Liliana
Sauber-Schatz, Erin
Schafer, Ilana
Secor, W. Evan
Shealy, Katherine
Shoemaker, Trevor
Skoff, Tami
Spradling, Philip
Staples, J. Erin
Stoddard, Robyn
Stoney, Rhett
Straily, Anne
Suchdev, Parminder
Surie, Diya
Szablewski, Christine
Tack, Danielle
Tan, Kathrine
Tardivel, Kara
Taylor, Melanie
Teshale, Eyasu
Thigpen, Michael
Tiller, Rebekah
Tobolowsky, Farrell
Toda, Mitsuru
Tohme, Rania
Traxler, Rita
Treffiletti, Aimee
Vanden Esschert, Kayla
VanderEnde, Kristin
Varela, Kate
Velazquez-Kronen, Raquel
Vieira, Antonio
Walker, Allison
Wallace, Ryan
Wassilak, Steven
Weinberg, Michelle
Weng, Mark
White, Stefanie
Yee, Eileen
Yeh, Michael
Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily


Ali, Stacy L. U.S. Embassy, U.S. Department of State (Phnom Penh, Cambodia)
Ansdell, Vernon John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii (Honolulu, HI)
Atkinson, Greg Liverpool John Moores University (Liverpool, United Kingdom)
Aung, Wai Yan Peace Corps (Yangon, Myanmar)
Backer, Howard University of California, Berkeley (Berkeley, CA)
Barkati, Sapha J.D. MacLean Centre for Tropical Diseases, McGill University Health Centre (Montreal, Canada)
Barnett, Elizabeth Boston Medical Center; Boston University School of Medicine (Boston, MA)
Batterham, Alan MedConnect North (United Kingdom)
Bégué, Rodolfo Kapi'olani Medical Center for Women and Children; John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii (Honolulu, HI)
Blumberg, Lucille National Institute for Communicable Diseases (Johannesburg, South Africa)
Borwein, Sarah Hong Kong SAR, China
Bozkurt, Taylan MEDARVA Healthcare (Richmond, VA)
Cabada, Miguel University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX); Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia (Cusco, Peru)
Carroll, I. Dale The Pregnant Traveler (Spring Lake, MI)
Chen, Lin Hwei Mount Auburn Hospital (Cambridge, MA); Harvard Medical School (Boston, MA)
Chimiak, James Diver's Alert Network (Durham, NC)
Connor, Bradley The New York Center for Travel and Tropical Medicine; Weill Cornell Medical College (New York, NY)
Coyle, Christina Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University (Bronx, NY)
Dalinkus, Christopher Piedmont Medical Care Corporation (Atlanta, GA)
Daugherty, Michael Emory University School of Medicine (Atlanta, GA)
Esposito, Douglas Administration for Children & Families, US Department of Health & Human Services (Atlanta, GA)
Fairley, Jessica Emory University School of Medicine (Atlanta, GA)
Fivenson, David St. Joseph Mercy Health System; Fivenson Dermatology (Ann Arbor, MI)
Flórez-Arango, José City University of New York Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy (New York, NY)
Franco-Paredes, Carlos University of Colorado School of Medicine Anschutz Medical Campus (Aurora, CO); Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez (Mexico City, Mexico)
Freedman, David Emeritus, University of Alabama at Birmingham (Birmingham, AL)
Gaynor, Kate Guangzhou United Family Healthcare (Guangzhou, China)
Gracey, Sherry United States Public Health Service; United States Coast Guard (Honolulu, HI)
Hackett, Peter University of Colorado School of Medicine Anschutz Medical Campus (Aurora, CO); Institute for Altitude Medicine (Telluride, CO)
Hagmann, Stefan Baystate Children's Hospital; UMass Chan Medical School-Baystate (Springfield, MA)
Hamer, Davidson Boston University School of Public Health; Boston University School of Medicine (Boston, MA)
Henao-Martínez, Andrés University of Colorado Hospital; University of Colorado School of Medicine Anschutz Medical Campus (Aurora, CO)
Hochberg, Natasha Boston Medical Center; Boston University School of Public Health; Boston University School of Medicine (Boston, MA)
Hynes, Noreen The Johns Hopkins Hospital; Bloomberg School of Public Health; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (Baltimore, MD)
Iamsirithaworn, Sopon Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health (Nonthaburi, Thailand)
Kayden, Stephanie Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; Harvard Medical School (Boston, MA)
Keller, Alexander Special Warfare Operational Medicine Squadron; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (Bethesda, MD)
Killerby, Marie Vanderbilt University School of Medicine (Nashville, TN)
Kivlehan, Sean Brigham & Women's Hospital; Harvard Medical School (Boston, MA)
Kohl, Sarah University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (Pittsburgh, PA)
Kotton, Camille Massachusetts General Hospital; Harvard Medical School (Boston, MA)
Kozarsky, Alan Federal Aviation Administration-Designated Human Intervention Motivation Study (HIMS) Senior Aviation Medical Examiner (AME); Eye Consultants of Atlanta (Atlanta, GA)
Kozarsky, Phyllis Emerita, Emory University School of Medicine (Atlanta, GA)
Lange, W. Robert Retired, National Institute on Drug Abuse, US Department of Health & Human Services (Bethesda, MD); Retired, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (Baltimore, MD); Retired, University of Maryland (Baltimore, MD)
LaRocque, Regina Massachusetts General Hospital; Harvard Medical School (Boston, MA)
Lehner, Virginia Bureau of Consular Affairs, US Department of State (Washington, DC)
Levi, Matt Virtual Health at CHI Franciscan; CommonSpirit Health (Fox Island, WA)
Libman, Michael J.D. MacLean Centre for Tropical Diseases, McGill University Health Centre (Montreal, Canada)
McDevitt, Sue Ann New York University Langone Health (New York, NY)
McLellan, Susan University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX)
Meister, Kathleen ICF (Rockville, MD)
Montgomery, Gary United States Public Health Service; US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Seattle, WA)
Neumann, Karl Deceased
Nilles, Eric Brigham & Women's Hospital; Harvard Medical School (Boston, MA)
Nord, Daniel Duke University School of Medicine (Durham, NC)
Norton, Scott Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (Bethesda, MD)
Parker, Salim University of Cape Town Department of Medicine (Cape Town, South Africa)
Raczniak, Gregory United States Public Health Service; United States Coast Guard (Honolulu, HI)
Riddle, Mark University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine (Reno, NV)
Rosselot, Gail Travel Well of Westchester (Briarcliff Manor, NY)
Ryan, Edward Massachusetts General Hospital; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health; Harvard Medical School (Boston, MA)
Schumacher, Bryan United States Navy; Department of Defense Liaison to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA)
Shlim, David Jackson Hole Travel & Tropical Medicine (Wilson, WY)
Shurtleff, David National Center for Complementary & Integrative Health, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health & Human Services (Bethesda, MD)
Staat, Mary Allen Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center; University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (Cincinnati, OH)
Stauffer, Kendra Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service, US Department of Agriculture (Gainesville, FL)
Stauffer, William University of Minnesota Medical School (Minneapolis, MN)
Stout, Shawn National Center for Complementary & Integrative Health, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health & Human Services (Bethesda, MD)
Studer, Nicholas United States Army Institute of Surgical Research (Fort Sam Houston, TX); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (Bethesda, MD)
Thompson, Andrew Lane Clark & Peacock LLP (London, United Kingdom)
Valk, Thomas Jupiter, FL
Van Tilburg, Christopher Providence Hood River Memorial Hospital (Hood River, OR)
Waggoner, Jesse Emory University School of Medicine (Atlanta, GA)
Walker, Patricia HealthPartners Institute; HealthPartners Travel & Tropical Medicine Center (St. Paul, MN); University of Minnesota Medical School (Minneapolis, MN)
Wanat, Karolyn Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI)
Wanduragala, Danushka Minnesota Department of Health (St. Paul, MN)
Wangu, Zoon University of Massachusetts Memorial Children's Medical Center (Worcester, MA); Massachusetts Department of Public Health (Boston, MA)
Weinberg, Nicholas Dartmouth Geisel School of Medicine (Hanover, NH)
Wilson, Mary Elizabeth University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine (San Francisco, CA); Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (Boston, MA)
Wu, Henry Emory University School of Medicine (Atlanta, GA)
Youngster, Ilan Shamir Medical Center (Zerfin, Israel)


Ronnie Henry

Ronnie Henry (1970–2020)

With this edition of the CDC Yellow Book, we say goodbye to several friends. Martin "Marty" Cetron, who directed the Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ) in the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases at CDC since 1996, will retire from the Agency in spring 2023. Over the course of his distinguished career, Marty advanced the practice of global health, mentoring numerous leaders in the field of travel medicine along the way. A list of his accomplishments could easily fill their own volume and his ongoing support of the CDC Yellow Book over the years has helped ensure that this reference remains the respected resource it is. Thank you, Marty, for all you have done. With deep appreciation, we wish you fair winds and Godspeed.

We also are saying goodbye to three physician colleagues and longtime CDC Yellow Book contributors who passed away since we last published: Jay Keystone (September 2019), William Bunn (January 2021), and Karl Neumann (February 2021). We will miss them and their teaching. Their legacy endures, however, and the clinicians and public health professionals who contributed to this edition in their stead, stand on their shoulders.

And last, we remember Ronnie Henry, a dearly loved son, brother, and friend. Ronnie, who began working in medical writing, editing, and publishing in 1996, had experience in a wide range of subjects, including infectious and chronic disease, epidemiology, microbiology, pharmacology, and clinical research. He came to CDC in 2003 as an editor for Emerging Infectious Diseases, spent a year in Beijing teaching medical writing and publishing to Chinese researchers, and then worked as an editor for Preventing Chronic Disease. Ronnie joined the Travelers' Health Branch in June 2010, as a health communication specialist. He quickly became an encyclopedia of travel health information and served as technical editor for five editions of CDC Yellow Book.

Ronnie helped shape CDC's messaging around healthy international travel for over 10 years, and supported multiple emergency response efforts including Ebola, Zika, and COVID-19. An extraordinary teacher, he influenced authors throughout the agency. He continued writing "Etymologia" features for Emerging Infections Diseases long after he left the journal's staff, expanding readers' knowledge with his explanations of the origins of medical and scientific terms. Ronnie had the rare ability to write equally well for scientific and lay audiences. He was also the driving force behind the development of the "Can I Eat This?" app, which delivered accurate and actionable food and water recommendations for international travelers with a dose of Ronnie's trademark humor. The app appeared as an answer to a question on Jeopardy, which he claimed as a crowning achievement in his career.

Ronnie traveled the world with his closest friends, exploring the continents of North and South America, Europe, and Asia. He regaled colleagues with tales of his adventures abroad, including the time he ate the entire head of a large fish thinking it was customary to do so in Japan. The shocked expression of the chef and other diners told him otherwise, just a moment too late. Outwardly, Ronnie was a colorful character with many striking qualities that all who met him knew and loved: his ever-changing hair color; his passion for trivia games; his amazing cooking, fermenting, baking, and ice cream-making skills; improv comedy; his fondness for cats and cat memes; his wry wit, astonishing intellect, and eloquence; and the pleasure he took in sharing a well-made meal with good friends. Ronnie was a mainstay in DGMQ and a light to everyone who knew him. At the time of his death (May 2020), Ronnie left behind many friends across CDC, and it is to his memory that this edition of the CDC Yellow Book is dedicated.