Ahead of Print / In Press
Volume 22, Number 12—December 2016
Assessing the Epidemic Potential of RNA and DNA Viruses
M. Woolhouse et al.View Summary
Detecting and quantifying virus transmission is a challenge in assessing the public health threat of emerging viruses.
Investigation and Response to 2 Plague Cases, Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2015
M. Danforth et al.View Summary
Rapid interagency investigation and public health response reduced the risk for transmission to other Yosemite visitors and staff.
African Horse Sickness Caused by Genome Reassortment and Reversion to Virulence of Live, Attenuated Vaccine Viruses, South Africa, 2004–2014
C. T. Weyer et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Epidemiologic and phylogenetic analyses show repeated outbreaks derived from vaccine viruses.
African horse sickness (AHS) is a hemorrhagic viral fever of horses. It is the only equine disease for which the World Organization for Animal Health has introduced specific guidelines for member countries seeking official recognition of disease-free status. Since 1997, South Africa has maintained an AHS controlled area; however, sporadic outbreaks of AHS have occurred in this area. We compared the whole genome sequences of 39 AHS viruses (AHSVs) from field AHS cases to determine the source of 3 such outbreaks. Our analysis confirmed that individual outbreaks were caused by virulent revertants of AHSV type 1 live, attenuated vaccine (LAV) and reassortants with genome segments derived from AHSV types 1, 3, and 4 from a LAV used in South Africa. These findings show that despite effective protection of vaccinated horses, polyvalent LAV may, paradoxically, place susceptible horses at risk for AHS.
Anomalous High Rainfall and Soil Saturation as Combined Risk Indicator of Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks, South Africa, 2008–2011
R. Williams et al.View SummaryView Abstract
A prediction model that includes these factors shows promising potential for forecasting major outbreaks.
Rift Valley fever (RVF), a zoonotic vectorborne viral disease, causes loss of life among humans and livestock and an adverse effect on the economy of affected countries. Vaccination is the most effective way to protect livestock; however, during protracted interepidemic periods, farmers discontinue vaccination, which leads to loss of herd immunity and heavy losses of livestock when subsequent outbreaks occur. Retrospective analysis of the 2008–2011 RVF epidemics in South Africa revealed a pattern of continuous and widespread seasonal rainfall causing substantial soil saturation followed by explicit rainfall events that flooded dambos (seasonally flooded depressions), triggering outbreaks of disease. Incorporation of rainfall and soil saturation data into a prediction model for major outbreaks of RVF resulted in the correctly identified risk in nearly 90% of instances at least 1 month before outbreaks occurred; all indications are that irrigation is of major importance in the remaining 10% of outbreaks.
Whole-Genome Characterization and Strain Comparison of VT2f-Producing Escherichia coli Causing Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
L. Grande et al.View SummaryView Abstract
Strains from diarrheal illnesses could be transmitted from pigeons, but HUS-associated strains may derive from phage acquisition by isolates with larger virulence assets.
Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in humans cause disease ranging from uncomplicated intestinal illnesses to bloody diarrhea and systemic sequelae, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Previous research indicated that pigeons may be a reservoir for a population of verotoxigenic E. coli producing the VT2f variant. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize a set of VT2f-producing E. coli strains from human patients with diarrhea or HUS and from healthy pigeons. We describe a phage conveying the vtx2f genes and provide evidence that the strains causing milder diarrheal disease may be transmitted to humans from pigeons. The strains causing HUS could derive from VT2f phage acquisition by E. coli strains with a virulence genes asset resembling that of typical HUS-associated verotoxigenic E. coli.
Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
R. Vilela et al.View Summary
Our findings could stimulate research of lacaziosis/lobomycosis (paracoccidioidomycosis ceti) caused by this fungi.
Vertebrate Host Susceptibility to Heartland Virus
A. M. Bosco-Lauth et al.View Summary
Virus-infected Ag129 mice could be a useful model for identifying tick infection or virus transmission.
Infectious Dose of Listeria monocytogenes in Outbreak Linked to Ice Cream, United States, 2015
R. Pouillot et al.View Summary
In susceptible populations illness can occur from low-level contamination that does not cause illness in the general population.
Live Poultry Market Interventions for Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, Guangdong, China
J. Wu et al.View Summary
Temporary closure of live poultry markets appears not to have halted virus transmission or prevented its dissemination.
Electrolyte and Metabolic Disturbances in Ebola Patients during a Clinical Trial, Guinea, 2015
J. van Griensven et al.View Summary
Such abnormalities were common during infection and enabled accurate stratification of the risk for death.
Time Course of MERS-CoV Infection and Immunity in Dromedary Camels
B. Meyer et al.View Abstract
Knowledge about immunity to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels is essential for infection control and vaccination. A longitudinal study of 11 dam–calf pairs showed that calves lose maternal MERS-CoV antibodies 5–6 months postparturition and are left susceptible to infection, indicating a short window of opportunity for vaccination.
Hepatitis E Virus in 3 Types of Laboratory Animals, China, 2012–2015
L. Wang et al.View Abstract
We found seroprevalences for hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 7.5%, 18.5%, and 83.3% in specific pathogen-free (SPF) laboratory rabbits, monkeys, and pigs, respectively, in China. HEV RNA was detected in 4.8% of SPF rabbits, and 11 rabbits had latent infections. Screening for HEV in SPF animals before relevant experiments are conducted is recommended.
Genetically Different Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses in West Africa, 2015
L. Tassoni et al.View Abstract
To trace the evolution of highly pathogenic influenza A(H5N1) virus in West Africa, we sequenced genomes of 43 viruses collected during 2015 from poultry and wild birds in 5 countries. We found 2 co-circulating genetic groups within clade 188.8.131.52c. Mutations that may increase adaptation to mammals raise concern over possible risk for humans.
Highly Pathogenic Reassortant Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Clade 184.108.40.206a in Poultry, Bhutan
A. Marinova-Petkova et al.View Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1), clade 220.127.116.11a, with an H9-like polymerase basic protein 1 gene, isolated in Bhutan in 2012, replicated faster in vitro than its H5N1 parental genotype and was transmitted more efficiently in a chicken model. These properties likely help limit/eradicate outbreaks, combined with strict control measures.
Highly Divergent Dengue Virus Type 2 in Traveler Returning from Indonesia to Australia
W. Liu et al.
Baylisascaris procyonis Roundworm Seroprevalence among Wildlife Rehabilitators, United States and Canada, 2012–2015
S. Sapp et al.
Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Dairy Cattle Serum Samples from 2009, Uruguay
A. Franco-Luiz et al.
Detection and Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii in Pigs, South Korea, 2014–2015
M. Seo et al.
Human Brucellosis in Febrile Patients Seeking Treatment at Remote Hospitals, Northeastern Kenya, 2014–2015
J. Njeru et al.View Abstract
During 2014–2015, patients in northeastern Kenya were assessed for brucellosis and characteristics that might help clinicians identify brucellosis. Among 146 confirmed brucellosis patients, 29 (20%) had negative serologic tests. No clinical feature was a good indicator of infection, which was associated with animal contact and drinking raw milk.
Human Infection with Novel Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia species,China, 2015
H. Li et al.
Horizontal Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Reindeer
S. Moore et al.
Tuberculosis-Associated Death among Adult Wild Boars, Spain, 2009–2014
J. A. Barasona et al.
Fatal Case of West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease in Bulgaria
M. Baymakova et al.
Rickettsia raoultii in Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks, Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, Ukraine, 2010
G. Karbowiak et al.
Possible Foodborne Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus from Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars from Corsica
N. Pavio et al.
Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever, Southern Spain, 2004–2015
L. Castilla-Guerra et al.
Unique Strain of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes pacificus Ticks, California, USA
V. J. Cook et al.
Xenopsylla brasiliensis Fleas in Plague Focus Areas, Madagascar
A. Miarinjara et al.
Chlamydia-Related Bacteria in Free-Living and Captive Great Apes, Gabon
A. Klöckner et al.
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus among Poultry, Ghana, 2015
I. Asante et al.
New Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Bactrian Camels, Xinjiang, China
P. Woo et al.
Zika Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System and Female Genital Tract
E. Nicastri et al.
Avian Influenza Virus H5 Strain with North American and Eurasian Lineage Genes in an Antarctic Penguin
G. P. Barriga et al.
Locally Acquired Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Disease, Arkansas, USA
J. Garlick et al.
Volume 23, Number 1—January 2017
Epidemiology of Hospitalizations for Invasive Candidiasis, United States, 2002–2012
S. Strollo et al.
Epidemiology of Human Anthrax in China, 1955−2014
Y. Li et al.
Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage during an Outbreak and Humanitarian Crisis, Iraq, 2015
E. Lam et al.
Cost-effectiveness of Increasing Access to Contraception during the Zika Virus Outbreak, Puerto Rico, 2016
R. Li et al.
Reconstruction of Zika Virus Introduction in Brazil
K. Zinszer et al.View Abstract
We estimated the speed of Zika virus introduction in Brazil by using confirmed cases at the municipal level. Our models indicate a southward pattern of introduction starting from the northeastern coast and a pattern of movement toward the western border with an average speed of spread of 42 km/day or 15,367 km/year.
Upsurge of Enterovirus D68, the Netherlands, 2016
M. Knoester et al.View Abstract
In June and July 2016, we identified 8 adults and 17 children with respiratory enterovirus D68 infections. Thirteen children required intensive care unit admission because of respiratory insufficiency, and 1 had concomitant acute flaccid myelitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of 20 sequences obtained belong to the recently described clade B3.
Haemophilus influenzae type b Invasive Disease in Amish Children, Missouri, USA, 2014
A. L. Myers et al.
Prolonged Detection of Zika Virus in Vaginal Secretions and Whole Blood
K. O. Murray et al.View Abstract
Infection with Zika virus is an emerging public health crisis. We observed prolonged detection of virus RNA in vaginal mucosal swab specimens and whole blood for a US traveler with acute Zika virus infection who had visited Honduras. These findings advance understanding of Zika virus infection and provide data for additional testing strategies.
Acute Respiratory Disease in US Army Trainees 3 Years after Reintroduction of Adenovirus Vaccine
N. S. Clemmons et al.View Abstract
The 1999 cessation of vaccination against adenovirus types 4 and 7 among US Army trainees resulted in reemergence of acute respiratory disease (ARD) outbreaks. The 2011 implementation of a replacement vaccine led to dramatic and sustained decreases in ARD cases, supporting continuation of vaccination in this population at high risk for ARD.
Persistent Zika Virus Detection in Semen in a Traveler Returning to the United Kingdom from Brazil, 2016
K. M. Gaskell et al.View Abstract
Zika virus is normally transmitted by mosquitos, but cases of sexual transmission have been reported. We describe a patient with symptomatic Zika virus infection in whom the virus was detected in semen for 92 days. Our findings support recommendations for 6 months of barrier contraceptive use after symptomatic Zika virus infection.
Increased Invasive Pneumococcal Disease, North East England, 2015–2016
C. Houseman et al.
Travel-Related Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Israel, 2006–2014
E. Meltzer et al.View Abstract
During 2006–2014, four tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) cases occurred among Israeli travelers. We calculated TBE incidence at 321.0, 45.0, 13.2, and 7.5 cases/100,000 travelers/year of travel to Sweden, Switzerland, Austria, and Germany, respectively. TBE incidence among travelers to these destinations appears to justify TBE vaccination in accordance with World Health Organization recommendations.
Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Healthcare Needs during Zika Virus Transmission, Puerto Rico, 2016
E. Dirlikov et al.View Abstract
To assist with public health preparedness activities, we estimated the number of expected cases of Zika virus in Puerto Rico and associated healthcare needs. Estimated annual incidence is 3.2–5.1 times the baseline, and long-term care needs are predicted to be 3–5 times greater than in years with no Zika virus.
Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Caused by Group G Streptococcus, United Kingdom
M. Baxter and M. Morgan
Multidrug-Resistant Pathogens in Hospitalized Syrian Children
D. Kassem et al.
Puumala Virus in Bank Voles (Myodes glareolus), Lithuania
P. Straková et al.
Chikungunya Fever in Traveler from Angola to Japan, 2016
S. Takaya et al.
Loiasis in US Traveler Returning from Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, 2016
D. H. Priest and T. B. Nutman
Human Tick-Borne Encephalitis, the Netherlands
V. Hira and B. Rockx
Volume 23, Number 2—February 2017
Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H5Nx) Viruses with Altered H5 Receptor-Binding Specificity
H. Guo et al.
Volume 23, Number 3—March 2017
Molecular, Spatial, and Field Epidemiology Evidence of Community-Based Tuberculosis Transmission, Gaborone, Botswana, 2012–2015
D. Surie et al.
The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.