Recombination Resulting in Virulence Shift in Avian Influenza Outbreak, Chile
David L. Suarez* , Dennis A. Senne†, Jill Banks‡, Ian H. Brown‡, Steve C. Essen‡, Chang-Won Lee* , Ruth J. Manvell‡, Christian Mathieu-Benson§, Valentine Moreno§, Janice C. Pedersen†, Brundaban Panigrahy†, Herman Rojas§, Eric Spackman*, and Dennis J. Alexander‡
Author affiliations: *Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory, Athens, Georgia, USA; †National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Ames, Iowa, USA; ‡Veterinary Laboratories Agency–Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, United Kingdom; §Ministerio de Agricultura, Santiago, Chile
Figure 2. Phylogenetic tree of the nucleoprotein nucleotide sequence, which includes both low pathogenic and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from Chile. Representative avian, human, swine, and equine influenza gene sequences are also included. The tree was generated with PAUP 4.0b4 computer program with bootstrap replication (500 bootstraps) and a heuristic search method. The tree is rooted to A/Equine/Prague/1/56, and branch lengths are included on the tree. Standard two-letter postal codes are used for states in the United States. TK, turkey; CK, chicken; DK, duck; and FPV, fowl plague virus. For isolates without a species, it is assumed to be an isolate from a human.
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