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Volume 10, Number 6—June 2004

Dispatch

Reference Group Choice and Antibiotic Resistance Outcomes

Keith S. Kaye*Comments to Author , John J. Engemann*, Essy Mozaffari†, and Yehuda Carmeli‡
Author affiliations: *Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA; †Pfizer, New York, New York, USA; ‡Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

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Table 1

Outcomes and adjusted analyses for MRSA for study 1a

Outcome Cases Controls Adjusted analyses
OR (95% CI)b Attributable to MRSA p value
Three analyses comparing MRSA and uninfected controls
(n = 121)
(n = 193)



Deaths
20.7%
2.1%
11.4 (2.8 to 34.9)c

<0.001
Hospital days after surgery, mean per case
29.1
6.1
3.2 (2.7 to 3.7)d
13.4
<0.001
Charges ($), mean/case
118,414
34,395
2.2 (2.0 to 2.6)e
41,274
<0.001
Three analyses comparing MRSA and MSSA controls
(n = 121)
(n = 165)



Deaths
20.7%
6.7%
3.4f

0.003
Hospital days after infection, mean per case
22.0
13.2
1.2g
2.6
0.11
Charges ($), mean per case 118,414 73,165 1.2h 13,901 0.03

aOR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; MSSA, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus.
bOdds ratio for deaths, and multiplicative effect (ME) for continuous outcomes (length of stay and charges).
cAdjusted for American Society of Anesthesiologists-Physical Status (ASA) score >3 and age.
dAdjusted for ASA score, duration of surgery, hospital, renal disease, diabetes and length of hospital stay before surgery.
eAdjusted for ASA score, hospital, duration of surgery, renal disease, length of hospital stay, and intensive care unit (ICU) stay before surgery.
fAdjusted for ASA score >3, duration of surgery, and age.
gAdjusted for ASA score, renal disease, diabetes mellitus, hospital, duration of surgery, and length of stay before infection.
hAdjusted for ASA score, duration of surgery, length of hospital and ICU stay before infection, hospital, renal disease and diabetes.

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