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Volume 10, Number 7—July 2004

Research

Sporadic Cryptosporidiosis Case-Control Study with Genotyping

Paul R. Hunter*Comments to Author , Sara Hughes†, Sarah Woodhouse†, Qutub Syed†, Neville Q. Verlander‡, Rachel M. Chalmers§, Kenton Morgan¶, Gordon Nichols†, Nick Beeching#, and Keith Osborn**
Author affiliations: *University of East Anglia, Norwich United Kingdom; †Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre – North West, Chester, United Kingdom; ‡Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London, United Kingdom; §Singleton Hospital, Swansea, United Kingdom; ¶University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom; #Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom; and; **United Utilities, Warrington, United Kingdom

Main Article

Appendix

Single variable analysis (chi-square test or Fisher exact test) of significant and selected nonsignificant variablesa

Variables Case-patients Controls OR 95% CIs p value
General information
Sex
M
204 190 1.02 0.76–1.35 0.967
F
222
210



Have a medical condition known to affect immunity





Y
17 3 5.67 1.54–4.78 0.004
N
376
376



No. of persons 5–15 years living with you





0
115 63 <0.001b
1
115 103 0.61 0.40–0.94
2
39 53 0.40 0.23–0.70
3
12 11 0.60 0.23–1.59
4
2 4 0.27 0.00–21.70
>5
0
1
0.00
0.00–21.70

Travel outside UK





Y
99 24 4.74 2.89–7.85 <0.001
N
327
376



Gardening other than watering





Y
62
90
0.61
0.42–0.89
0.009
N
345
306



Swimming pool use
Swim in a swimming pool
Y
172 147 1.15 0.86–1.55 0.362
N
252
248



No. of times swum in a swimming pool





0
252 248 <0.001b
1
38 46 0.81 0.50–1.33
2
39 52 0.74 0.46–1.19
3
18 17 1.04 0.50–2.18
4
13 11 1.16 0.48–2.84
>5
53
18
2.90
1.60–5.29

Use a toddler pool





Y
76 50 1.52 1.01–2.28 0.043
N
345
344



No. of times swum in toddler pool





0
345 344 0.001b
1
16 16 1.00 0.47–2.14
2
21 22 0.95 0.49–1.84
3
5 4 1.25 0.27–6.33
4
6 3 1.99 0.42–12.41
>5
18
1
17.95
2.80–749.91

Contact with animals
Touch or handle any farm animals





Y
70 43 1.65 1.07–2.54 0.021
N
344
348



Touch any cattle





Y
22 8 2.69 1.11–6.70 0.024
N
392
383



Domestic pets living in home





Y
207 214 0.82 0.62–1.09 0.180
N
219
186



Contact with case-patients





Anyone else in previous 2 weeks in house ill with diarrhea





Y
83 28 3.20 1.98–5.20 <0.001
N
334
361



Contact with another person ill with diarrhea





Y
91 24 4.27 2.59–7.10 <0.001
N
324
365



Contact with children <5 y
Toileting contact with a child <5 y
Y
86 52 1.69 1.14–2.51 0.008
N
341
348



Diaper-changing contact with a child <5 y





Y
71 48 1.46 0.96–2.22 0.073
N
356
352



Drinking water consumption
Did you drink unboiled tap water at home
Y
347 342 0.82 0.54–1.23 0.359
N
67
54



No. of glasses of tap water drunk a day





0
67 54 0.037b
1
54 65 0.67 0.39–1.15
2
57 74 0.62 0.37–1.05
3
65 88 0.60 0.36–0.99
4
47 57 0.66 0.38–1.16
>5
73
33
1.78
1.00–3.19

Use a water filter at home





Y
39 34 1.11 0.66–1.85 0.771
N
373
360



Disruption to your water supply at home





Y
27 25 1.19 0.65–2.18 0.650
N
321
353



Any water discoloration





Y
22 16 1.33 0.6–6–2.72 0.490
N
392
380



Any altered taste to the water





Y
14 4 3.43 1.03–12.57 0.040
N
400
392



Any loss of water pressure





Y
11 13 0.80 0.33–1.95 0.751
N
403
383



Any other problems with water





Y
17 11 1.50 0.65–3.49 0.400
N
397
385



Did you drink unboiled tap water at somewhere other than home





Y
212 193 1.16 0.85–1.58 0.352
N
153
162



Did you use ice cubes





Y
120 113 1.05 0.76–1.45 0.813
N
277
274



No. of times ice cubes were used





0
277 274 0.944b
1
13 12 1.07 0.45–2.56
2
17 24 0.70 0.35–1.39
3
15 20 0.74 0.35–1.55
4
19 9 2.09 0.88–5.08
>5
30
31
0.96
0.55–1.68

Drink any bottled water





Y
164 148 1.13 0.83–1.52 0.457
N
228
232



No. of glasses of bottled water a day





0
228 232 0.018a
1
31 49 0.64 0.38–1.07
2
34 37 0.94 0.55–1.59
3
12 12 1.02 0.42–2.48
4
16 9 1.81 0.74–4.53
>5
21
8
2.67
1.10–6.71

Consumption of raw vegetables or salads
Eat lettuce
Y
161 186 0.75 0.55–1.01 0.057
N
212
183



Eat other green salad





Y
165 204 0.61 0.45–0.83 0.001
N
194
146



Eat tomatoes





Y
195 249 0.54 0.39–0.73 <0.001
N
184
126



Eat coleslaw





Y
83
116
0.62
0.44–0.89
0.007
N
267
233



Eat raw vegetables





Y
94 157 0.45 0.33–0.63 <0.001
N
259
196



Eat fresh fruit





Y
332 361 0.36 0.20–0.63 <0.001
N
54
21



Consumption of dairy products
Eat uncooked soft cheese





Y
85 116 0.65 0.46–0.91 0.012
N
270
238



Eat uncooked hard cheese





Y
243 281 0.59 0.42–0.83 0.002
N
125
85



Eat ice cream





Y
249 284 0.55 0.39–0.78 <0.001
N
127
80



Eat or drink cream





Y
86 124 0.60 0.42–0.84 0.003
N
259
223



Area of residence
Health authority
A
40 19 <0.001
B
14 46 0.14 0.06–0.32
C
0 0 n.e. n.e.
D
40 37 0.51 0.25–1.04
E
8 4 0.95 0.25–3.55
F
32 58 0.26 0.13–0.53
G
7 7 0.48 0.15–5.55
H
17 10 0.81 0.31–2.09
I
0 0 n.e. n.e.
J
42 51 0.39 0.20–0.77
K
1 1 0.48 0.83–8.01
L
5 4 0.59 0.14–2.47
M
43 29 0.70 0.34–1.45
N
24 10 1.14 0.46–2.85
O
27 23 0.56 0.26–1.22
P
15 6 1.19 0.40–3.54
Q
1 0 n.e. 0.0004–∞
R
24 23 0.50 0.22–1.09
S
8 17 0.22 0.08–0.61
T
5 10 0.24 0.07–0.79
U 74 45 0.78 0.40–1.51

aOR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; n.e., not estimable.
bChi-square test for trend.

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