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Volume 10, Number 8—August 2004

Research

Antimicrobial Drug Use and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Aberdeen, 1996–2000

Dominique L. Monnet*, Fiona M. MacKenzie†Comments to Author , José María López-Lozano‡, Arielle Beyaert§, Máximo Camacho§, Rachel Wilson†, David Stuart†, and Ian M. Gould†
Author affiliations: *Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark; †Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, Scotland; ‡Hospital Vega Baja, Orihuela (Alicante), Spain; §University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain

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Table 2

Characteristics of the monthly antimicrobial use time series, January 1996–December 2000.

Antimicrobial drug class Average monthly usea (minimum–maximum) Trendc Seasonalityc
Combinations of penicillins with β-lactamase inhibitors
228.6 (119.9–334.9)
Upward
Yes (0.294)
β-lactamase resistant penicillins
116.1 (49.1–202.1)
No
No
Macrolides
90.2 (32.7–177.9)
Upward
Yes (0.371)
Penicillins with extended spectrum
90.1 (43.9–177.4)
No
No
Third-generation cephalosporins
62.5 (43.8–103.1)
Upward
Yes (0.226)
β-lactamase-sensitive penicillins
54.6 (0–110.5)
No
No
Combinations of sulfonamides and trimethoprim, including derivatives
52.9 (0–86.8)
No
No
Fluoroquinolones
51.9 (19.4–87.5)
Upward
No
Second-generation cephalosporins
32.9 (5.3–87.1)
Downward
No
Other antibacterial drugsd
32.7 (16.3–45.9)
Upward
No
Tetracyclines
30.9 (0–63.4)
Downward
No
Aminoglycosides
24.8 (11.8–44.1)
Upward
Yes (0.236)
Glycopeptides
13.5 (4.6–25.5)
Upward
No
Lincosamides
6.1 (0–15.7)
Upward
Yes (0.208)
First-generation cephalosporins
5.2 (0.7–14.5)
No
No
Carbapenems 4.0 (0–8.5) No No

aDefined daily doses (DDD) per 1,000 mean patient-days.
bBased on regression of the series on time (according to the results of Dickey-Fuller unit root tests, none of the series needed to be differenced).
cAutocorrelation of order 12, based on the correlogram and the partial correlogram. When seasonality was present, the figure in parenthesis indicates the estimated autocorrelation of order 12, i.e., the correlation between antimicrobial use on a given month and use on the same month 1 year before.
dmphenicols, monobactams, other quinolones, imidazoles, fusidic acid, and nitrofurantoin derivatives.

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