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Volume 10, Number 9—September 2004

Research

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Europe, 1999–2002

Edine W. Tiemersma*Comments to Author , Stef L.A.M. Bronzwaer†, Outi Lyytikäinen†, John E. Degener‡, Paul Schrijnemakers*, Nienke Bruinsma*, Jos Monen*, Wolfgang Witte§, Hajo Grundmann*, and European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System Participants
Author affiliations: *National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; †National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland; ‡University Hospital Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; §Robert Koch Institute, Werningerode, Germany

Main Article

Table 2

Relative change in MRSA proportion per country per year and 95% confidence intervals as calculated from Poisson regression models a,b,c

Country Reported % MRSA at start Reported % MRSA in 2002 Relative change per year, ratio 95% CI of estimated change p value
Austria 7.0d 7.6 0.80 0.48 – 1.34 0.39
Belgium 22.1 27.2 1.25 1.12 – 1.41 < 0.01
Bulgaria 35.1d 37.7 1.11 0.59 – 2.09 0.76
Czech Republic 4.5d 6.2 1.15 0.89 – 1.50 0.29
Denmark 0.3 1.0 1.64 0.97 – 2.75 0.06
Finland 1.5 0.8 0.69 0.43 – 1.11 0.13
Germany 9.4 19.2 1.72 1.54 – 1.93 < 0.01
Greece 37.0 48.6 1.23 0.89 – 1.71 0.21
Iceland 0.0 0.0 0.52 0.07 – 3.67 0.51
Ireland 39.4 45.0 1.36 1.17 – 1.58 < 0.01
Italy 35.2 40.0 1.11 0.94 – 1.30 0.23
Luxembourg 15.0 18.3 1.09 0.71 – 1.67 0.70
Malta 34.7d 42.5 1.58 0.92 – 2.74 0.10
Netherlands 0.4 1.0 1.62 1.01 – 2.58 0.04
Portugal 39.7 38.9 0.91 0.75 – 1.09 0.32
Slovenia 22.3d 14.7 0.69 0.51 – 0.93 0.02
Spain 28.4d 23.5 1.03 0.87 – 1.21 0.74
Sweden 1.1 0.7 0.95 0.73 – 1.23 0.68
United Kingdom 30.5 44.5 1.48 1.31 – 1.66 < 0.01

aCI, confidence interval; MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
bAdjusted for autocorrelation within hospitals and for variation in the number of isolates per quarter, including only the hospitals participating for at least 3 consecutive years and reporting data of > 20 isolates.
cThe change estimated by the model does not necessarily correspond to the overall change that can be calculated from the second and third column, this is because some trends first show an increase, followed by a decrease, or vice versa.
dData from year 2000 onwards.

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1European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System national representatives, 2002: Austria: H. Mittermayer, W. Koller; Belgium: H. Goossens, E. Hendrickx; Bulgaria: B. Markova; Croatia: S. Kalenic, A. Tambic-Andrasavic; Czech Republic: P. Urbaskova; Denmark: D. Monnet; Estonia: P. Naaber; Finland: O. Lyytikäinen, A. Nissinen; France: H. Aubry-Damon, P. Courvalin; Germany: U. Buchholz, W. Witte; Greece: N. Legakis, G. Vatopoulos; Hungary: M. Füzi; Ireland: D. O’Flanagan, O. Murphy; Iceland: K. Kristinsson; Israel: R. Raz; Italy: G. Cornaglia, P. D’Ancona; Luxembourg: R. Hemmer; Malta: M. Borg; Netherlands: A. de Neeling, E. Tiemersma; Norway: A. Hoiby, E. Bjørløw; Poland: W. Hryniewicz; Portugal: M. Caniça; Romania: I. Codita; Slovenia: M. Gubina, J. Kolman; Slovakia: L. Langsadl; Spain: F. Baquero, J. Campos; Sweden: B. Liljequist; United Kingdom: A. Johnson, M. Whale.

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