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Volume 11, Number 2—February 2005

Dispatch

Malaria Epidemic and Drug Resistance, Djibouti

Christophe Rogier*Comments to Author , Bruno Pradines*, H. Bogreau*, Jean-Louis Koeck†‡, Mohamed-Ali Kamil§, and Odile Mercereau-Puijalon¶
Author affiliations: *IMTSSA-IFR48, Marseille, France; †Centre Hospitalier des Armées Bouffard, Djibouti; ‡HIA Val de Grace, Paris, France; §Ministry of Health, Djibouti; ¶Institut Pasteur, Paris, France

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Table 1

Multiplicity of infections deduced from msp1 and msp2 genotyping and frequency (%) of the Pfdhfr (codons 51, 59, and 108), Pfdhps (codons 436, 437, and 540) and Pfcrt (codon 76) genotypes

Locus Period 1
1998 (n = 46) Period 2
1999 (n = 61) Period 3 
2002 (n = 32) Total (N = 139)
msp1
Mean multiplicity 1.6 1.5 1.3
SD* 0.7 0.7 0.5
No of multiple infections (%) 23 (50) 22 (36) 11 (34) 56 (40)
msp2†
Mean multiplicity 1.4 1.2 1.1
SD 0.7 0.4 0.4
No. of multiple infections (%) 14 (31) 12 (20) 2 (6) 28 (21)
msp1 and msp2
Mean multiplicity 1.8 1.6 1.4
SD 0.7 0.7 0.6
No. of multiple infections (%) 28 (61) 29 (48) 12 (38) 69 (50)
Pf dhfr
Codon 51
   (Wildtype) N 38 (83) 60 (98) 15 (50) 113 (83)
   N & I 3 (6) 0 0 3 (2)
   I 5 (11) 1 (2) 15 (50) 21 (15)
   Not genotyped - - 2 2
Codon 59
   (Wildtype) C 43 (94) 61 (100) 29 (97) 133 (97)
   C & R 1 (2) 0 0 1 (1)
   R 2 (4) 0 1 (3) 3 (2)
   Not genotyped - - 2 2
Codon 108
   (Wildtype) S 37 (81) 60 (98) 16 (50) 113 (81)
   S & N 2 (4) 0 0 2 (2)
   N 7 (15) 1 (2) 16 (50) 24 (17)
Pf dhps
Codon 436
   (Wildtype) S 46 (100) 52 (93) 29 (94) 127 (95)
   F 0 1 (2) 0 1 (1)
   A 0 3 (5) 2 (6) 5 (4)
   Not genotyped 5 1 6
Codon 437
   (Wildtype) A 45 (98) 54 (96) 19 (61) 118 (89)
   G 1 (2) 2 (4) 12 (39) 15 (11)
   Not genotyped 5 1 6
Codon 540
   (Wildtype) K 44 (96) 60 (98) 19 (59) 123 (88)
   K & E 1 (2) 0 0 1 (1)
   E 1 (2) 1 (2) 13 (41) 15 (11)
Pf crt
Codon 76
   (Wildtype) K 1 (2) 1 (2) 1 (3) 7 (5)
   K & T 3 (7) 2 (3) 2 (6) 3 (2)
   T 42 (91) 58 (95) 29 (91) 129 (93)

*SD, standard deviation; The genotypes at the Pf dhfr, Pf dhps, and Pf crt locus refer to the one-letter symbolized amino acids coded by the codons. A, Alanine; C, Cysteine; F, Phenylalanine; G, Glycine; I, Isoleucine; K, Lysine; N, Asparagine; R, Arginine; S, Serine; T, Threonine.
msp2 multiplicity estimated on 45 and 59 samples in 1998 and 1999, respectively.

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