Transmission of Human and Macaque Plasmodium spp. to Ex-Captive Orangutans in Kalimantan, Indonesia
Michael J.C. Reid*1, Raul Ursic*, Dawn Cooper*, Hamed Nazzari*, Melinda Griffiths*, Birute M. Galdikas*†, Rosa M. Garriga‡2, Mark Skinner*, and Carl Lowenberger*
Author affiliations: *Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada; †Orangutan Foundation International, Los Angeles, California, USA; ‡Orangutan Care Center and Quarantine, Desa Pasir Panjang, Kaliamantan Tengah, Indonesia
Figure 1. Phylogenetic tree of obtained sequences at the nucleotide level. Phylogenetic analysis of 14 individual sequences of the 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (nucleotide level) isolated from the blood of orangutans housed at the Orangutan Care Center and Quarantine by PCR. Group 1 (Plasmodium cynomolgi–like) is represented by sequences from VS25, VS28, VM75, and VM82; group 2 (P. inui–like) is represented by sequences from VS14 and VM88; group 3 (P. cynomolgi) is represented by VS21, VS32, VS33, VM40, VM55, and VM71; and group 4 (P. vivax) is represented by sequence VS63.
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