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Volume 13, Number 11—November 2007

Dispatch

Characterization of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Caused by Hantaviruses, Estonia

Irina Golovljova*†‡, Veera Vasilenko*, Vassili Mittženkov*, Tiina Prükk§, Elviira Seppet§, Sirkka Vene†, Bo Settergren¶, Alexander Plyusnin†#, and Åke Lundkvist†‡Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia; †Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden; ‡Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; §University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia; ¶Central Hospital, Kristianstad, Sweden; #University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland;

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Table 2

Frequency of clinical symptoms and laboratory findings in 24 HFRS patients, Estonia*

Findings No. patients (%)
PUUV, n = 20 (%) SAAV, n = 3 (%) DOBV, n = 1
Signs and symptoms
Fever 20 (100) 3 (100) 1
Headache 8 (40) 3 (100) 0
Abdominal pain 11 (55) 3 (100) 1
Back pain 16 (80) 2 (67) 1
Nausea/vomiting 11 (55) 2 (67) 1
Hemorrhage 2 (10) 1 (33) 0
Visual impairment 5 (25) 0 0
Diarrhea 3 (15) 2 (67) 1
Oliguria (<400 mL/d) 11 (55) 3 (100) 1
Polyuria (>2,500 mL/d) 9 (45) 2 (67) 1
Hematuria (microscopic) 20 (100) 3 (100) 0
Hemodialysis 1 (5) 1 (33) 0
Laboratory findings Mean value (% patients with abnormal findings), range
Leukocyte count, 4–10 × 109/L 11 (58), 5.7–24.4 9 (33), 8.1–11.3 5
Thrombocyte count, 100–400 × 109/L 120 (57), 12.6–350 126 (33), 90–163 174
C-reactive protein <10 mg/L 84 (94), 9.7–229.8 69 (100), 52–95 168
Serum urea, 2.8–8.3 mmol/L 23 (94), 5.0–87.0 31 (100), 20.1–42.5 ND
Serum creatinine, 35–115 μmol/L 303 (100), 120–1,124 606 (100)†, 489–796 98
AST <26 U/L 74 (100), 28–205 56 (100), 39–77 122
ALT <35 U/L 62 (88), 20–233 71 (100), 41–123 ND
Proteinuria (g/L) 3 (95), 0.25–11.8 7 (100), 1.06–17.8 1

*HFRS, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome; PUUV, Puumala virus; SAAV, Saaremaa virus; DOBV, Dobrava virus; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase.
†Statistically significant result, p<0.05.

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