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Volume 13, Number 4—April 2007

Research

Spanish Influenza in Japanese Armed Forces, 1918–1920

Akihiko Kawana*Comments to Author , Go Naka*, Yuji Fujikura*, Yasuyuki Kato*, Yasutaka Mizuno*, Tatsuya Kondo*, and Koichiro Kudo*
Author affiliations: *International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo, Japan;

Main Article

Table

Characteristics of patients who survived influenza with those who died of influenza, Fifth Japanese Army Garrison Hospital, 1919–1920*

Characteristic Patients who survived (n = 124) Patients who died (n = 8) p value
Age, y
22.7
22.8
>0.9
Medical history
31/116
2/8
>0.9
Body temperature at time of hospitalization, °C
38.7
39.9
0.0005
Heart rate, beats/min
89
106
0.004
Rales
63/116
8/8
0.01
Reddening of throat
98/116
7/8
>0.9
Digestive symptoms
23/116
4/8
0.07
“Agonized facial expression”†
5/116
3/8
0.009
No. days from onset of illness to hospitalization
4.5
6.8
0.14
No. days hospitalized 14.8 7.1 0.04

*Mann-Whitney U test was used to test differences between the 2 groups. Fisher exact test was used to test differences in the ratio of the cross-calculation table. One case (at day 79) was excluded. This patient was admitted to the hospital with flulike symptoms but died of a bacterial infection.
†A painful expression as reported by Japanese doctors.

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