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Volume 13, Number 5—May 2007

Dispatch

Antimicrobial Drugs and Community–acquired Clostridium difficile–associated Disease, UK

J. A. Chris Delaney*, Sandra Dial*, Alan Barkun*, and Samy Suissa*Comments to Author 
Author affiliations: *McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Canada;

Main Article

Table 1

Antimicrobial drug exposure of patients with and without Clostridium difficile–associated disease, UK, 1993–2004*

Antimicrobial drug received, past 90 d Case-patients,
n = 1,233 (%) Control-patients, n = 12,330 (%) Crude OR† Adjusted OR‡
(95% CI)
Any 456 (37) 1649 (13) 5.0 3.7 (3.1–4.4)
Tetracyclines 17 (1.4) 106 (0.9) 1.0 0.9 (0.5–­1.5)
Penicillins 202 (16.4) 790 (6.4) 2.4 1.9 (1.6–­ 2.4)
Sulfonamides and trimethoprim 71 (5.7) 236 (1.9) 2.3 1.9 (1.5–2.7)
Macrolides 80 (6.5) 219 (1.7) 2.7 2.2 (1.7–3.1)
Cephalosporins and other β-lactams 76 (6.2) 207 (1.7) 2.9 2.2 (1.7–3.2)
Fluoroquinolones 70 (5.7) 84 (0.7) 10.9 6.2 (4.4­– 8.8)

*OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
†Adjusted for other antimicrobial drugs and prior antimicrobial drug use to ensure that all comparisons used the same reference group.
‡Adjusted for inflammatory bowel disease, diverticular disease, peptic ulcer disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease, Helicobacter
pylori
–associated disease, pernicious anemia, cancer including solid tumor and hematologic malignancies, diabetes mellitus, chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease, cirrhosis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, aspirin, H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors, and
antimicrobial drug use in the past 2 years.

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