High Genetic Diversity of Measles Virus, World Health Organization European Region, 2005–2006
Jacques R. Kremer* , Kevin E. Brown†, Li Jin†, Sabine Santibanez‡, Sergey V. Shulga§, Yair Aboudy¶, Irina V. Demchyshyna#, Sultana Djemileva**, Juan E. Echevarria††, David F. Featherstone‡‡, Mirsada Hukic§§, Kari Johansen¶¶, Bogumila Litwinska##, Elena Lopareva***, Emilia Lupulescu†††, Andreas Mentis‡‡‡, Zefira Mihneva§§§, Maria M. Mosquera††, Mark Muscat¶¶¶, M.A. Naumova§, Jasminka Nedeljkovic###, Ljubov S. Nekrasova#, Fabio Magurano****, Claudia Fortuna****, Helena Rebelo de Andrade††††, Jean-Luc Richard‡‡‡‡, Alma Robo§§§§, Paul A. Rota***, Elena O. Samoilovich¶¶¶¶, Inna Sarv####, Galina V. Semeiko¶¶¶¶, Nazim Shugayev*****, Elmira S. Utegenova†††††, Rob van Binnendijk‡‡‡‡‡, Lasse Vinner¶¶¶, Diane Waku-Kouomou§§§§§, T. Fabian Wild§§§§§, David W.G. Brown†, Annette Mankertz‡, Claude P. Muller*, and Mick N. Mulders¶¶¶¶¶##
Author affiliations: *World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella, Luxembourg, Luxembourg; †WHO Global Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella, London, United Kingdom; ‡WHO Regional Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella, Berlin, Germany; §WHO Regional Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella, Moscow, Russian Federation; ¶Israel Ministry of Health, Tel Hashomer, Israel; #Ministry of Health, Kyiv, Ukraine; **Ministry of Public Health of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan; ††Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Spain; ‡‡WHO, Geneva, Switzerland; §§University of Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina; ¶¶Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden; ##State Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland; ***Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; †††National Institute for Research and Development in Microbiology and Immunology “Cantacuzino,” Bucharest, Romania; ‡‡‡Institut Pasteur Hellenique, Athens, Greece; §§§National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia, Bulgaria; ¶¶¶Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark; ###Institute of Virology, Vaccine and Sera Torlak, Belgrade, Serbia; ****Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy; ††††Instituto Nacional de Saúde Dr. Ricardo Jorge, Lisboa, Portugal; ‡‡‡‡Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Berne, Switzerland; §§§§Institute of Public Health, Tirana, Albania; ¶¶¶¶Ministry of Health, Minsk, Belarus; ####Health Protection Inspectorate, Tallinn, Estonia; *****Ministry of Health, Baku, Azerbaijan; †††††Ministry of Health, Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan; ‡‡‡‡‡Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; §§§§§INSERM U404, Lyon, France; ¶¶¶¶¶WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark;
Appendix Figure 2. Phylogenetic tree of all measles virus (MV) variants that were identified in Europe during 2005–2006 and that belonged to genotypes other than D4, D6, and B3. Confirmed importations from other continents are shown in brackets. Reference strains of all known MV genotypes were also included. Tree calculation and MV nomenclature are as delineated in Figure 1.
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