Skip directly to local search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options
CDC Home

Volume 14, Number 2—February 2008

Research

Emergence of New Norovirus Variants on Spring Cruise Ships and Prediction of Winter Epidemics

Linda Verhoef*Comments to Author , Evelyn Depoortere†, Ingeborg Boxman‡, Erwin Duizer*, Yvonne van Duynhoven*, John Harris§, Christina Johnsen¶, Annelies Kroneman*, Soizick Le Guyader#, Wilina Lim**, Leena Maunula††, Hege Meldal‡‡, Rod Ratcliff§§, Gábor Reuter¶¶, Eckart Schreier##, Joukje Siebenga*, Kirsti Vainio‡‡, Carmen Varela***, Harry Vennema*, Marion Koopmans*, and on behalf of the Food Borne Viruses in Europe Network1
Author affiliations: *Center for Infectious Disease Control, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; †European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Stockholm, Sweden; ‡Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Zutphen, the Netherlands; §Health Protection Agency, London, England; ¶Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark; #Institut Français pour la Recherche et l'Exploitation de la Mer, Nantes, France; **Public Health Laboratory Centre, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China; ††University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; ‡‡Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway; §§Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; ¶¶Baranya County Institute of State Public Health Service, Pécs, Hungary; ##Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany; ***Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain;

Main Article

Figure 1

Number of outbreaks (A) and causative genotypes (B) for cruise-related outbreaks of norovirus for each ship from January through July 2006. Data were derived from multiple sources, active case finding, and case reports. Vertical black lines indicated markers for reported cleaning activities with extra intensity. a, GGII.4–2006a; b, GGII.4–2006b; GGII, GGII but variant unknown.

Figure 1. Number of outbreaks (A) and causative genotypes (B) for cruise-related outbreaks of norovirus for each ship from January through July 2006. Data were derived from multiple sources, active case finding, and case reports. Vertical black lines indicated markers for reported cleaning activities with extra intensity. a, GGII.4–2006a; b, GGII.4–2006b; GGII, GGII but variant unknown.

Main Article

1On behalf of the Food Borne Viruses in Europe Network, the following additional persons contributed significantly to the work described in this article: United Kingdom: Jim Gray, David Brown, Bob Adak, Miren Iturriza (Health Protection Agency); Finland: Carl-Henrik von Bonsdorff (University of Helsinki), Markku Kuusi (National Public Health Institute); Denmark: Blenda Böttiger, Kåre Mølbak, Gerhard Falkenhorst (Statens Serum Institute); Sweden: Kjell-Olof Hedlund, Yvonne Andersson (Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control); France: Pierre Pothier, Evelyne Kohli, Katia Balay, Jerome Kaplon, Gael Belliot (University of Dijon); Spain: Albert Bosch, Angela Dominguez (University of Barcelona), Javier Buesa (University of Valencia), Alicia Sanchez Fauquier (Instituto de Salud Carlos III); Hungary: György Szücs, (State Public Health Service), Katalin Krisztalovics (National Center for Epidemiology); Slovenia: Mateja Poljsak-Prijatelj, Darja Barlic-Maganja (University of Ljubljana) Ada Hocevar Grom (Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia); Italy: Franco Ruggeri, Ilaria Di Bartolo (Instituto Superiore di Sanita); Germany: Marina Höhne, Klaus Stark, Judith Koch, Katharina Alpers (Robert Koch Institute); Ireland: Maureen Lynch (Mater Misericordiae Hospital), Barbara Foley, Paul McKeown (Health Protection Surveillance Centre), Suzie Coughlan (National Virus Reference Laboratory).

Top of Page

 

Past Issues

Select a Past Issue:

World Malaria Day - April 25, 2014 - Invest in the future, defeat malaria

20th Anniversary - National Infant Immunization Week - Immunization. Power to Protect.

Art in Science - Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases
Now available for order



CDC 24/7 – Saving Lives, Protecting People, Saving Money. Learn More About How CDC Works For You…

USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention   1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO