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Volume 14, Number 6—June 2008

Research

Population-Attributable Risk Estimates for Risk Factors Associated with Campylobacter Infection, Australia

Russell J. Stafford*†Comments to Author , Philip J. Schluter‡†, Andrew J. Wilson*†, Martyn D. Kirk§, Gillian Hall¶, Leanne Unicomb¶#, and the OzFoodNet Working Group
Author affiliations: *Queensland Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; †University of Queensland, Brisbane; ‡Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand; §OzFoodNet, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia; ¶Australian National University, Canberra; #OzFoodNet, Wallsend, New South Wales, Australia1In addition to some of the authors, the OzFoodNet Working Group for this study included Craig Dalton, Tony Merritt, Rosie Ashbolt, Cameron Sault, Joy Gregory, Robert Bell, Rod Givney, Jane Raupach, Barry Combs, Lillian Mwanri, Jennie Musto, Nola Tomaska, Geoff Millard, Mohinder Sarna, Geoff Hogg, Craig Williams, Janet Li, Karin Lalor, Nittita Prasopa-Plazier, Lyn Mueleners, and Ian McKay.;

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Table 1

Results of univariable (crude) and multivariable logistic regression analysis for variables within each exposure group and the final multivariable model, Campylobacter infection, Australia, 2001–2002*

Exposure group/variables†Case-patients,
n/N (%)Controls, 
n/N (%)Univariable analysis

Multivariable logistic regression analysis (exposure groups)

Final multivariable model‡
OR95% CIOR95% CIaOR95% CI
Meat, poultry and seafoodModel 1
No chicken110/711 (15.5)162/808 (20.0)1.01.01.0
Chicken, cooked528/711 (74.3)618/808 (76.5)1.31.0–1.71.31.0–1.81.41.0– 1.9
Chicken, undercooked73/711 (10.3)28/808 (3.5)3.82.3–6.34.42.6–7.54.72.6– 8.4
Offal36/852 (4.2)16/830 (1.9)2.21.2–4.42.11.1–3.92.01.0– 4.0
Fresh fish
256/833 (30.7)
332/827 (40.1)
0.7
0.5–0.8

0.6
0.5–0.8

0.7
0.5– 0.9
Eggs and dairy productsModel 2
Homemade foods containing raw eggs
40/837 (4.8)
70/822 (8.5)
0.5
0.4–0.8

0.5
0.3–0.7

0.5
0.3– 0.8
ProduceModel 3
Organic fruit and vegetables50/805 (6.2)100/804 (12.4)0.50.3–0.70.60.4–0.80.60.4–1.0
Homegrown fruit84/845 (9.9)169/828 (20.4)0.40.3–0.60.50.4–0.70.40.3–0.6
Vegetable index§
0 (no vegetables)141/853 (16.5)87/830 (10.5)1.01.01.0
1 (1–2)339/853 (39.7)305/830 (36.7)0.70.5–0.90.70.5–1.00.70.5–1.0
2 (3–4)352/853 (41.3)382/830 (46.0)0.60.4–0.80.60.4–0.90.60.4–0.9
3 (5–6)
21/853 (2.5)
56/830 (6.7)
0.2
90.1–0.4

0.3
0.1–0.5

0.2
0.1–0.5
Water consumptionModel 4
Commercial bottled water
72/846 (8.5)
47/820 (5.7)
1.5
1.0–2.3

1.6
1.1–2.3

NS

Food-handling practicesModel 5
Barbequed cooked meat 
 placed back on plate used 
 for raw meat
21/511 (4.1)
9/471 (1.9)
2.2
1.0–5.5

2.3
1.0–5.4

NS

Animal and pet exposure
Domestic chickensModel 6
No domestic chicken783/846 (92.6)777/821 (94.6)1.01.01.0
Chicken <6 mo of age18/846 (2.1)5/821 (0.6)3.61.3–9.75.21.5–17.812.42.6– 59.3
Chicken >6 mo of age45/846 (5.3)39/821 (4.8)1.10.7–1.81.30.8–2.21.70.9– 3.0
Domestic dogs
No dog397/839 (47.3)452/819 (55.2)1.01.01.0
Dog <6 mo of age48/839 (5.7)17/819 (2.1)3.21.8–5.72.91.6–5.32.11.1– 4.2
Dog >6 mo of age
394/839 (47.0)
350/819 (42.7)
1.3
1.1–1.6

1.2
1.0–1.5

1.2
0.9–1.5
Host factorsModel 7
Chronic gastrointestinal 
 condition101/873 (11.6)50/831 (6.0)2.01.4–3.02.01.4–2.92.31.5–3.4
Liver disease14/875 (1.6)2/830 (0.2)6.71.5–61.25.11.1–23.0NS
Any immunosuppressive 
 agent/therapy35/881 (4.0)12/833 (1.4)2.81.4–6.02.81.4–5.5NS

*Each model adjusted for state, sex, and education. aOR, adjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; NS, not significant.
†The exposure period for foods is 7 d before onset of illness for case-patients and 7 days before interview for controls.
‡After removal of nonsignificant interaction terms.
§The vegetable index was created to indirectly measure the range of raw produce consumed in the 7-day exposure period for patients and controls. The values of this index variable represented a count of the number of different types of salad/vegetable foods eaten during the exposure period.

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