Volume 14, Number 7—July 2008
Spread of Vector-borne Diseases and Neglect of Leishmaniasis, Europe
|Notification status||Current information from reference centers (2000–2006)||VL + CL incidence x 100,000†||Imported cases (VL + CL)|
|Portugal‡||Compulsory for VL||≈22 VL cases/y recorded at IHMT||0.07–0.17||≈2 cases/y recorded at IHMT||Average 20% seroprevalence in disease-endemic areas (3)|
|Spain§||Compulsory in 12/17 autonomous communities; 20%–45% underreporting for VL, ≈100% for CL (4)||≈100 VL cases/y recorded by National Epidemiologic Surveillance Network, RENAVE||0.18–0.29||≈5 cases/y recorded at ISCIII||Average 8.5% seroprevalence (5)|
|France¶||Not compulsory, but spontaneous reports at UMON||≈24 VL + CL cases/y reported at UMON||0.02–0.19||≈65 cases/y recorded at UMON||Seroprevalence in disease-endemic areas of southern France 4%–20%#|
|Italy**||Compulsory for both VL and CL, but CL underreported||≈200 VL cases/y recorded at ISS; ≈300 CL cases/y estimated by ISS||0.15–0.38||≈8 cases/y recorded at ISS||Average 15% seroprevalence in peninsular Italy; average 2% seroprevalence in continental Italy (6)|
|Greece††||Compulsory for both VL and CL, but underreported||≈21 VL cases/y notified||0.06–0.49||Unknown||Average seroprevalence 25% in disease-endemic areas (7)|
|Cyprus‡‡||Compulsory for both VL and CL, but underreported||5 VL + CL cases recorded in 2006||0.25–0.47||Unknown||Average seroprevalence 20% in disease-endemic areas|
|Turkey§§||Compulsory for both VL and CL||≈37 VL cases/y and ≈2,300 CL cases/y notified||1.6–8.53||Unknown||Average 15.7% seroprevalence|
*Authors’ institutions are national reference laboratories for leishmaniasis diagnosis and surveillance and rely on consolidated countrywide networks of collaborating clinical health centers. Diagnosis records are cross-checked with case notifications to provide more realistic figures and estimates. VL, visceral leishmaniasis; CL, cutaneous Leishmaniasis; WHO, World Health Organization.
†WHO-EURO, WHO Europe, 1996–2005; http://data.euro.who.int/CISID.
‡Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical (IHMT), Lisbon, Portugal.
§Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.
¶Université de Montpellier (UMON), data from Centre National de Référence des Leishmania, Montpellier, France.
#Source: retrospective canine leishmaniasis database, Centre National de Référence des Leishmania.
**Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), Rome, Italy.
††Hellenic Pasteur Institute (HPI), Athens, Greece.
‡‡National Reference Laboratory for Animal Health (VS), Nicosia, Cyprus.
§§Ege University (EUMS-DP), Izmir, Turkey.