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Volume 14, Number 9—September 2008

Research

Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda

Tony L. Goldberg1Comments to Author , Thomas R. Gillespie, Innocent B. Rwego, Elizabeth L. Estoff, and Colin A. Chapman
Author affiliations: University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA (T.L. Goldberg, T.R. Gillespie, E.L. Estoff); Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda (T.L. Goldberg, I.B. Rwego, C.A. Chapman); McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (C.A. Chapman); Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York, USA (C.A. Chapman);

Main Article

Figure 2

Dendrogram of genetic relatedness among 23 major clades of Escherichia coli from humans, domestic animals, and primates in 4 locations in and near Kibale National Park, western Uganda, derived from Rep-PCR genotypes. Major clades were identified from the full tree of 791 isolates by using the “cluster cutoff method” available in the computer program BioNumerics, version 4.0 (Applied Maths, Inc., Austin, TX, USA), which optimizes point-bisectional correlation across a range of cutoff similarity values to identify the most relevant clusters. A single representative bacterial genotype from each major clade is shown, and numbers of isolates falling within that clade are given (no.). Boxes indicate the host species and locations from which isolates in each clade were recovered and are shaded in proportion to the percentage of isolates in the clade from that species or location (0%, white; 100%, black). Species: H, human; L, livestock (cattle or goats); C, black-and-white colobus; R, red colobus; T, red-tailed guenon. Location: B, Bugembe fragment; K, Kiko 1 fragment; R, Rurama fragment; U, undisturbed locations within Kibale National Park. The dendrogram was drawn by using the neighbor-joining method (37) from a distance matrix generated from electrophoretic data that used optimized analytical parameters (30).

Figure 2. Dendrogram of genetic relatedness among 23 major clades of Escherichia coli from humans, domestic animals, and primates in 4 locations in and near Kibale National Park, western Uganda, derived from Rep-PCR genotypes. Major clades were identified from the full tree of 791 isolates by using the “cluster cutoff method” available in the computer program BioNumerics, version 4.0 (Applied Maths, Inc., Austin, TX, USA), which optimizes point-bisectional correlation across a range of cutoff similarity values to identify the most relevant clusters. A single representative bacterial genotype from each major clade is shown, and numbers of isolates falling within that clade are given (no.). Boxes indicate the host species and locations from which isolates in each clade were recovered and are shaded in proportion to the percentage of isolates in the clade from that species or location (0%, white; 100%, black). Species: H, human; L, livestock (cattle or goats); C, black-and-white colobus; R, red colobus; T, red-tailed guenon. Location: B, Bugembe fragment; K, Kiko 1 fragment; R, Rurama fragment; U, undisturbed locations within Kibale National Park. The dendrogram was drawn by using the neighbor-joining method (37) from a distance matrix generated from electrophoretic data that used optimized analytical parameters (30).

Main Article

1Current affiliation: University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

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