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Volume 14, Number 9—September 2008

Research

Pigs as Source of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Infections in Humans, Denmark

Hannah C. Lewis, Kåre Mølbak, Catrin Reese, Frank M. Aarestrup, Mette Selchau, Marit Sørum, and Robert L. SkovComments to Author 
Author affiliations: Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark (H.C. Lewis, K. Mølbak, M. Selchau, M. Sørum, R.L. Skov); European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (H.C. Lewis); Vejle Hospital, Vejle, Denmark (C. Reese); Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (F.M. Aarestrup);

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Table 1

Statistically significant associations by univariable analysis for infection with MRSA CC398, Denmark*

Exposure variable No. (%) case-patients exposed (n = 21) Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for MRSA infection
Case–control study, population controls (n = 42) Case–case study, non-CC398 case-patients (n = 39)
Animal and farm-related exposures
Lived or worked on farm with animals 14 (67) 22.1 (2.9–170.3) 11.6 (2.6–51.7)
Worked with animals or meat 11 (50) 16.2 (2.0–127.8) ∞†
Worked on farm with animals 10 (48) ∞† ∞†
Lived on farm with animals 9 (43) 6.9 (1.5–32.8) 7.9 (1.7–36.7)
Exposure to pigs 13 (62) ∞† ∞†
Exposure to cattle 6 (29) ∞† ∞†
Exposure to other farm animals (hens, goats, 
 sh eep) 7 (33) 11.1 (1.4–92.4) 5.9 (1.2–28.8)
Provided antimicrobial drugs to animals 10 (48) ∞† ∞†
Contact with farm workers 16 (76) 5.2 (1.4–19.3) ∞†
Contact with farmer 14 (67) 3.2 (1.0–10.6) ∞†
Contact with veterinarian 7 (33) 6.3 (1.3–30.7) 6.6 (1.4–31.8)
Lived in countryside 13 (62) 7.2 (1.5–33.8) 5.2 (1.4–18.9)
Had cat in home 11 (50) 3.2 (1.0–10.6) 3.4 (1.1–9.9)
Used manure in garden 7 (33) 3.2 (0.9–11.0) 6.6 (1.4–31.8)
Visited farm, zoo, or stables
12 (57)

0.8 (0.3–2.4)
4.7 (1.3–17.4)
Medical-related exposures
Admission to hospital in 12 mo before
 diagnosis 13 (62) 6.8 (1.9–24.4) 1.5 (0.4–5.2)
Someone in household with chronic condition 12 (57) 3.8 (1.2–12.5) 2.0 (0.8–9.3)
Antimicrobial drug use in 12 mo before 
 diagnosis 9 (43) 3.4 (1.0–11.5) 2.6 (0.8–9.2)
Contact with person with skin sore or other 
 skin infection 5 (26) 8.6 (1–74.9) 0.6 (0.2–1.9)

*MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; CC, clonal complex.
†p<0.01, by unmatched analysis.

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