Texas Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis Ames
Leo J. Kenefic, Talima Pearson, Richard T. Okinaka, Wai-Kwan Chung, Tamara Max, Matthew N. Van Ert, Chung K. Marston, Kathy Gutierrez, Amy K. Swinford, Alex R. Hoffmaster, and Paul Keim
Author affiliations: Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, Arizona, USA (L.J. Kenefic, T. Pearson, R.T. Okinaka, W.-K. Chung, T. Max, M.N. Van Ert, P. Keim); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA (R.T. Okinaka); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (C.K. Marston, A. R. Hoffmaster); Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College Station, Texas, USA (K. Gutierrez, A.K. Swinford); Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, USA (P. Keim);
Figure. Geographic and phylogenetic relationships among strains closely related to Bacillus anthracis Ames strain. A) Spatial relationships among Ames-like isolates from southern Texas. 1, location of the original Ames strain, isolated from Jim Hogg County, Texas, in 1981; 2, closely related Texas 1997 goat isolate (A0394); 3a and 3b, Texas 2001 isolates; 4 and 5, most recent cases, i.e., Texas 2006 (Kinney County) and Texas 2007 (Uvalde County). B) Genetic relationships among isolates with variable-number tandem-repeat and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) differences giving rise to that particular branch (arrows). The numbers at each branch terminus correlate with the numbers depicted on the map. SNP states are from ancestral to derived.
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