Volume 15, Number 1—January 2009
Rotavirus Genotype Distribution after Vaccine Introduction, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Brazil introduced rotavirus vaccination in March 2006. We studied 133 rotavirus-positive fecal samples collected from February 2005 through December 2007. Genotype G2P was found in 1.4% of samples in 2005, in 44% in 2006, and in 96% in 2007. Rotavirus detection rate decreased from 38% in 2005 to 24% in 2007 (p = 0.012).
Group A rotaviruses (RV-A) are the major etiologic agents of acute diarrhea in infants, causing ≈611,000 deaths each year (1). The recently developed attenuated G1P vaccine, Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium), was included in the Brazilian Expanded Immunization Program and, after March 2006, became available to the whole birth cohort. Rio de Janeiro is the second largest Brazilian city; vaccine coverage was 43.3% in 2006 and 74.4% in 2007. Although Rotarix was highly efficacious for preventing severe RV gastroenteritis in phase III trials carried out in Latin America and Europe, it appears to be less effective in preventing diarrhea caused by G2P RV-A strains, which do not share either the VP7 or the VP4 surface antigen with the vaccine strain (2).
Initial studies carried out in northeastern Brazil after RV-A vaccine introduction demonstrated the predominance of RV-A G2P in vaccinated populations (3–5). Also, the apparent extinction of non-G2 rotavirus strains from circulation was associated with a significant reduction in the frequency of RV-A detection in children with gastroenteritis (5). This finding suggests that G2P strains could be, to some extent, replacing P genotypes in the postvaccination period.
Sentinel RV-A surveillance, performed in selected pediatric settings as part of the strategies of immunization programs in Latin America, has been recommended to better assess RV-A effects and strain characterization. In this context, studies carried out in Brazil demonstrated that the emergence of G9P RV-A in Rio de Janeiro in the late 1990s was accompanied by the disappearance of common genotypes like G2P and G3P and the continuous detection of RV-A genotype G1P (6–10). RV-A G5, an atypical genotype prevalent in the early 1990s, has not been detected in Rio de Janeiro since 1997 (6–10). In this study, we estimated the distribution of RV-A genotypes in hospitalized children in Rio de Janeiro before and after the monovalent RV-A vaccine was introduced into the national immunization schedule.
From February 2005 through December 2007, fecal samples were collected from 464 hospitalized children from birth to 5 years of age who exhibited gastroenteritis and dehydration and required intravenous fluid replacement. The study was conducted in Salles Netto Municipal Hospital, a pediatric unit in Rio de Janeiro.
Most children studied (390 [84%]) were not eligible for full vaccination; they either were born before January 1, 2006, or were <4 months of age. Nevertheless, 39 (8.4%) had been vaccinated with 2 doses of Rotarix, and 35 (7.5%) did not receive the vaccine.
Samples were collected after written consent was given by the parents. This study was approved by the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation Ethical Research Committee (protocol no. 311/06).
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a combined enzyme immunoassay for RV-A strains and adenoviruses were used to detect RV-A. Most samples were G- and P-typed through seminested reverse transcription–PCR, as described (11). Seventeen RV-A–positive samples were P-typed through partial genome sequencing. This method was also used to G-type 1 sample. These strains could not be typed through PCR. All samples that were P-typed through sequencing were P. The only sample G-typed through sequencing was G9.
RV-A strains were detected in 133 (29%) of 464 samples. Genotype distribution showed a different profile for each year: 45% G9P, 30% G3P, 14% G1P, and 1.4% G2P in 2005; 41% G2P, 18% G3P, and 15% G9P in 2006; and 96% G2P in 2007 (Table).
In the 18 months from July 2006 through December 2007, almost all RV-A–positive samples (35/36, 97%) showed G2P specificity, which suggests a shift in genotype distribution, characterized by an increase in G2P detection since 2006. When the pre- and postvaccination periods were compared, these changes in genotype distribution were found to be accompanied by a significant reduction in the detection rate of RV-A from 38% (73/193) in 2005 to 24% (26/109) in 2007 (p = 0.012 by χ2 test). Vaccination rates in the RV-A–positive and –negative groups (considering only children eligible for full vaccination) were 29% (4/14) and 58% (35/60), respectively (odds ratio 0.29; 95% confidence interval 0.07–1.15; p = 0.043 by Fisher exact test, 1-sided. The 4 RV-A–positive vaccinated children were infected with G2P genotype.
The first studies that assessed the RV-A genotype distribution after the introduction of Rotarix were carried out in northeastern Brazil (3–5). They offered the hypothesis that vaccination with the monovalent G1P vaccine possibly created conditions in which RV-A G2P could acquire selective advantage over P genotypes (5). Nevertheless, a temporal periodicity, within the ≈10-year cyclic pattern of G2P occurrence in Brazil, should be considered to explain the increased detection of this genotype since 2006. This periodicity could coincide with RV-A vaccine introduction and the consequent reduction of circulation of non-G2 strains.
G2P RV-A was not detected from 2000 to 2004 in Rio de Janeiro (2–6); it was identified in 2005 (1.4%) and reemerged in 2006 (41%). Similarly, in northern Brazil, RV-A G2P was detected in 2005 after a period of absence (A. Linhares, pers. comm.). When other Latin American countries are considered, an outbreak of RV-A gastroenteritis with a high rate of G2P detection was recently described in Honduras (12). According to Patel et al. (13), ongoing surveillance in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras showed that G2P was the predominant circulating strain in 2006 (68%–81%). In Argentina, this genotype was also circulating in 2006 (J. Stupka, pers. comm.). RV-A with short electropherotype, characterized as G2P, was detected at high frequency in 2005 in Paraguay, after a 6-year absence (14). In these South American countries that border Brazil, there are no RV-A immunization campaigns, and G2P was detected before introduction of Rotarix in Brazil.
In Bangladesh, the rate of G2P detection increased recently (43% in 2005–2006) (15). The detection of G2P since 2005 in countries where RV-A vaccination is not implemented reinforces the possibility of natural reemergence of this genotype.
Our data also suggest a significant reduction in the rate of RV-A detection between the pre- and postvaccination periods. The comparison of vaccination rates between RV-A–positive and –negative children, even with a small sample size, suggests that vaccinated children have a reduced risk for severe RV-A diarrhea.
This survey is among the first to evaluate the effects of Rotarix in Brazil, the first Latin American country to introduce universal rotavirus vaccination. We believe that the emergence of strains that may escape protection can be a challenge to the RV-A immunization program in Brazil and needs to be continuously monitored.
Dr Carvalho-Costa is a research scientist in the Laboratory of Systematic Biochemistry in the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil. His research interest is focused on the detection, molecular characterization, and epidemiology of the pathogens and vectors of infectious diseases.
We thank the direction and pediatric staff of Salles Netto Municipal Hospital for supporting the inclusion of children in the study, Gilmar Alcantara de Matos for technical assistance with laboratory procedures, and Enilza Marcela do Nascimento for support regarding the collection of stool samples.
The study on which this report was based was supported with federal funds from the Brazilian Federal Agency for Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education, the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) (CNPq grants: 303539/2004–6; 303475/2005–6), Oswaldo Cruz Institute–FIOCRUZ, and General Coordination of Public Health Laboratories–Secretary of Health Surveillance (CGLAB/SVS), Ministry of Health. This work was performed at the Laboratory of Comparative Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, and at the Salles Netto Municipal Hospital, Rio de Janeiro.
- Parashar UD, Gibson CJ, Bresse JS, Glass RI. Rotavirus and severe childhood diarrhea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:304–6.
- Ruiz-Palacios GM, Perez-Schael I, Velazquez FR, Abate H, Breuer T, Clemens SC, ; Human Rotavirus Vaccine Study Group. Safety and efficacy of an attenuated vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:11–22.
- Gurgel RQ, Cuevas LE, Vieira SCF, Barros VCF, Fontes PB, Salustino EF, Predominance of rotavirus PG2 in a vaccinated population, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1571–3.
- Nakagomi T, Cuevas LE, Gurgel RG, Elrokhsi SH, Belkhir YA, Abugalia M, Apparent extinction of non-G2 rotavirus strains from circulation in Recife, Brazil, after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine. Arch Virol. 2008;153:591–3.
- Gurgel RQ, Correia JB, Cuevas LE. Effect of rotavirus vaccination on circulating virus strains. Lancet. 2008;371:301–2.
- Carvalho-Costa FA, Assis RM, Fialho AM, Bóia MN, Alves DP, Martins CM, Detection and molecular characterization of group A rotavirus from hospitalized children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2004. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2006;101:291–4.
- Volotão EM, Soares CC, Maranhão AG, Rocha LN, Hoshino Y, Santos N. Rotavirus surveillance in the city of Rio de Janeiro–Brazil during 2000–2004: detection of unusual strains with G8P or G10P specificities. J Med Virol. 2006;78:263–72.
- Santos N, Soares CC, Volotão EM, Albuquerque MCM, Hoshino Y. Surveillance of rotavirus strains in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 1999. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:3399–402.
- Leite JPG, Alfieri AA, Woods PA, Glass RI, Gentsch JR. Rotavirus G and P types circulating in Brazil: characterization by RT-PCR, probe hybridization, and sequence analysis. Arch Virol. 1996;141:2365–74.
- Araújo IT, Fialho AM, de Assis RM, Rocha M, Galvão M, Cruz CM, Rotavirus strain diversity in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: characterization of VP4 and VP7 genotypes in hospitalized children. J Trop Pediatr. 2002;48:214–8.
- Araujo IT, Ferreira MS, Fialho AM, Assis RM, Cruz CM, Rocha M, Rotavirus genotypes PG9, PG9, and PG9 in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:1999–2001.
- Ferrera A, Quan D, Espinoza F. Increased prevalence of genotype G2P(4) among children with rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in Honduras. 17th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases ICC; 2007 Mar 31–Apr 04; Munich. Hoboken (NJ): Wiley-Blackwell; 2007.
- Patel MM, Oliveira LH, Bispo AM, Gentsch J, Parashar UD. Rotavirus PG2 in a vaccinated population, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:863–5.
- Amarilla A, Espínola EE, Galeano ME, Fariña N, Russomando G, Parra GI. Rotavirus infection in the Paraguayan population, from 2004 to 2005: high incidence of rotavirus strains with short electropherotype in children and adults. Med Sci Monit. 2007;13:CR333–7.
- Rahman M, Sultana R, Ahmed G, Nahar S, Hassan ZM, Saiada F, Prevalence of G2P and G12P rotavirus, Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:18–24.
Suggested citation for this article: Carvalho-Costa FA, Araújo IT, Santos de Assis RM, Fialho AM, de Assis Martins CMM, Bóia MN, et al. Rotavirus genotype distribution after vaccine introduction, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2009 Feb [date cited]. Available from http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/15/1/07-1136.htm