Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infections and Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Therapy
Kevin L. Winthrop , Eric Chang, Shellie Yamashita, Michael F. Iademarco, and Philip A. LoBue
Author affiliations: Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, Oregon, USA (K.L. Winthrop, E. Chang, S. Yamashita); US Public Health Service, Washington, DC, USA (M.F. Iademarco); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (P.A. LoBue)
Figure 2. Reported causes of 105 confirmed and probable nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections associated with antitumor necrosis factor-α agents, US Food and Drug Administration MedWatch database, 1999–2006. *Other species include Mycobacteriumkansasii (n = 3), M. xenopi (n = 3), M. haemophilum (n = 2), and M. mucogenicum (n = 1).
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