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Volume 15, Number 3—March 2009

Dispatch

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) Outbreak in Captive Wild Birds and Cats, Cambodia

Stéphanie DesvauxComments to Author , Nick Marx, Sivuth Ong, Nicolas Gaidet, Matt Hunt, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, San Sorn, Malik Peiris, Sylvie van der Werf, and Jean-Marc Reynes
Author affiliations: Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Montpellier, France (S. Desvaux, N. Gaidet); WildAid, Phnom Penh, Cambodia (N. Marx, M. Hunt); Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Phnom Penh (S. Ong, J.-M. Reynes); Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (J.-C. Manuguerra, S. Van der Werf); National Animal Health and Production Investigation Center, Phnom Penh (S. Sorn); University of Hong Kong and Queen Marie Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China (M. Peiris)

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Table 1

Cumulative deaths during an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1), Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre, Cambodia, December 15, 2003–January 13, 2004*

Order Family Species (common name), no. sampled No. dead birds in S1 No. birds not dead in S1 Cumulative deaths in S2, % (dead/total at risk)
Per species Per order
Anseriformes
Anatidae
Anas poecilorhyncha (Indian spot-billed duck)
NP
NP
0 (0/4)
0 (0/4)
Ciconiiformes
Ardeidae Ardea cinerea (grey heron), n = 2 4 2 NP 47 (9/19)
Ardeola speciosa (Javan-pond heron), n = 1 7 0 100 (7/7)
Butorides striatus (little heron) NP NP 0 (0/1)
Egretta garzetta (little egret) NP NP 18 (2/11)
Ciconidae
Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus (black-neck stork) 1 3 NP
Leptoptilos dubius (greater adjutant stork) 2 1 NP
Leptoptilos javanicus (lesser adjutant stork) 3 21 NP
Mycteria leucocephala (painted stork) 6 20 NP
Ciconia episcopus (wooly necked stork) 0 3 NP
Anastomus oscitans (Asian openbill stork)
0
5
NP
Colombiformes
Colombidae
Treron curvirostra (thick-billed green pigeon) NP NP 0 (0/7 0 (0/17)
Streptopelia chinensis (spotted dove)
NP
NP
0 (0/10)
Coraciiformes
Buceritidae
Buceros bicornis (great hornbill)
NP
NP
100 (1/1)
100 (1/1)
Falconiformes
Accipitridae
Gyps bengalensis (white-rumped vulture) NP NP 100 (1/1) 93 (13/14)
Haliastur indus (Brahminy kite) NP NP 0 (0/1)
Ichthyophaga ichtyaetus (grey-headed fish eagle) 3 0 100 (4/4)
Ictinaetus malayensis (black eagle) NP NP 100 (1/1)
Milvus migrans (black kite) 1 0 NP
Spilornis cheela (crested serpent eagle), n = 1 1 0 100 (5/5)
Spizaetus cirrhatus (changeable hawk eagle), n = 1
0
0
100 (2/2)
Galliformes
Numididae Agelastes sp (guineafowl) NP NP 33.3 (1/3) 36 (5/14)
Phasianidae
Pavo muticus (green peafowl) 0 3 100 (3/3)
Gallus gallus (red jungle fowl)
NP
NP
12.5 (1/8)
Gruiformes
Gruidae
Grus antigone (Sarus crane)
3
0
NP

Passeriformes
Corvidae Corvus macrorynchos (large-billed crow), 
n = 1 2 0 100 (3/3) 25 (3/12)
Sturnidae
Gracula religiosa (hill mynah) NP NP 0 (0/3)
Acridotheres tristis (common mynah) NP NP 0 (0/4)
Acridotheres javanicus (white-vented mynah) NP NP 0 (0/1)
Sturnus contra (Asian pied starling)
NP
NP
0 (0/1)
Pelecaniformes
Anhigindae Anhinga melanogaster (oriental darter) 0 1 NP
Pelecanidae
Pelecanus philippensis (spot-billed pelican)
3
2
NP
Psittaciformes
Psittacidae
Psittacula eupatria (Alexandrine parakeet), 
n = 1† 1 0 50 (1/2) 0 (1/146)
Psittacula roseate (blossom-headed parakeet) NP NP 0 (0/20)
Psittacula alexandri (red-breasted parakeet) NP NP 0 (0/20)
Psittacula finschii (grey-headed parakeet)
NP
NP
0 (0/104)
Strigiformes
Strigidae Bubo nipalensis (spot-bellied eagle owl), 
n = 1 0 0 100 (1/1) 92 (12/13)
Ketupa ketupu (buffy fish owl) NP NP 100 (3/3)
Ketupa zeylonensis (brown fish owl) NP NP 86 (6/7)
Strix seloputo (spotted wood owl) NP NP 100 (2/2)
Tytonidae
Tyto alba (barn owl)
5
0
NP
Total 8 sampled 42 61 18.3% (44/240)

*S1, aviary section in which cumulative mortality rate could not be estimated because exact bird population was not known and birds were difficult to observe; S2, aviary section in which captive bird population was exactly known and number of dead birds was precisely recorded; NP, species not present in S1 or S2.
†Only sample that was negative for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1); all other birds sampled were positive.

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