New Respiratory Enterovirus and Recombinant Rhinoviruses among Circulating Picornaviruses
Caroline Tapparel1 , Thomas Junier1, Daniel Gerlach, Sandra Van Belle, Lara Turin, Samuel Cordey, Kathrin Mühlemann, Nicolas Regamey, John-David Aubert, Paola M. Soccal, Philippe Eigenmann, Evgeny Zdobnov1, and Laurent Kaiser1
Author affiliations: University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland (C. Tapparel, S. Van Belle, L. Turin, S. Cordey, P. M. Soccal, P. Eigenmann, L. Kaiser); University of Geneva Medical School, Geneva (C. Tapparel, T. Junier, D. Gerlach, S. Van Belle, L. Turin, S. Cordey, E. Zdobnov, L. Kaiser); Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Geneva (T. Junier, D. Gerlach, E. Zdobnov); University Hospital of Bern, Bern, Switzerland (K. Mühlemann, N. Regamey); University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland (J.-D. Aubert); Imperial College London, London, UK (E. Zdobnov); 1These authors contributed equally to this article.
Figure 1. 5′ untranslated region (A), capsid protein VP1 (B), and complete genome (C) phylogeny of the virus clades studied. Trees were produced by condensing the full phylogeny shown in Technical Appendix 213) and a related clinical strain (CL-Fnp5). HRV-C includes the new clade described since 2006 (9–14,16). Enterovirus 104 (EV-104) and the related strain CL-1231094 refer to a previously unknown enterovirus clade described in this study. In panel C, HRV-C′ is shown in brackets to indicate its expected location (based on VP1 and 3D sequences). Simian picornavirus 1 (SV2) was used as an outgroup. HEV, human enterovirus. Bootstrap support values <50 are not shown in the trees. New viruses are shown in boldface.
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