Multiple Origins of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1 Outbreaks, 2003–2007
Jean-Francois Valarcher1, Nick J. Knowles , Valery Zakharov, Alexey Scherbakov, Zhidong Zhang, You-Jun Shang, Zai-Xin Liu, Xiang-Tao Liu, Aniket Sanyal, Divakar Hemadri, Chakradhar Tosh2, Thaha J. Rasool3, Bramhadev Pattnaik, Kate R. Schumann, Tammy R. Beckham4, Wilai Linchongsubongkoch, Nigel P. Ferris, Peter L. Roeder5, and David J. Paton
Author affiliations: Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, UK (J.-F. Valarcher, N.J. Knowles, Z. Zhang, N.P. Ferris, D.J. Paton); FGI All-Russian Research Institute for Animal Health, Vladimir, Russian Federation (V. Zakharov, A. Scherbakov); Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China (Y.-J. Shang, Z.-X. Liu, X.-T. Liu); Project Directorate on Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Mukteswar-Kumaon, India (A. Sanyal, D. Hemadri, C. Tosh, T.J. Rasool, B. Pattnaik); Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Orient Point, New York, USA (K.R. Schumann, T.R. Beckham); Regional Reference Laboratory for Foot and Mouth Disease in South East Asia, Pakchong, Thailand (W. Linchongsubongkoch); Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy (P.L. Roeder)
Figure 2. Midpoint-rooted neighbor-joining tree showing the relationships between the complete VP1 sequences of Asia 1 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates studied. Only the tree structure is shown; details of the labeled groups are given in Figure 3. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site. The complete tree with all viruses labeled is shown in the Technical Appendix. SEA, group of viruses found in only in Southeast Asia and Hong Kong.
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