Multiple Origins of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1 Outbreaks, 2003–2007
Jean-Francois Valarcher1, Nick J. Knowles , Valery Zakharov, Alexey Scherbakov, Zhidong Zhang, You-Jun Shang, Zai-Xin Liu, Xiang-Tao Liu, Aniket Sanyal, Divakar Hemadri, Chakradhar Tosh2, Thaha J. Rasool3, Bramhadev Pattnaik, Kate R. Schumann, Tammy R. Beckham4, Wilai Linchongsubongkoch, Nigel P. Ferris, Peter L. Roeder5, and David J. Paton
Author affiliations: Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, UK (J.-F. Valarcher, N.J. Knowles, Z. Zhang, N.P. Ferris, D.J. Paton); FGI All-Russian Research Institute for Animal Health, Vladimir, Russian Federation (V. Zakharov, A. Scherbakov); Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China (Y.-J. Shang, Z.-X. Liu, X.-T. Liu); Project Directorate on Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Mukteswar-Kumaon, India (A. Sanyal, D. Hemadri, C. Tosh, T.J. Rasool, B. Pattnaik); Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Orient Point, New York, USA (K.R. Schumann, T.R. Beckham); Regional Reference Laboratory for Foot and Mouth Disease in South East Asia, Pakchong, Thailand (W. Linchongsubongkoch); Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy (P.L. Roeder)
Figure 3. Midpoint-rooted neighbor-joining tree showing relationships between the foot-and-mouth disease Asia 1 viruses studied. A) groups I, IV, and V; B) groups II and VI; C) group III. Other groups of older (pre-2003) viruses sharing >90% nucleotide identity are indicated by the word “group” without any number. Only bootstrap values >70% are shown. Scale bars indicate nucleotide substitutions per site. SEA, group of viruses found in only in Southeast Asia and Hong Kong. *Indicates that the reference number is not one designated by the World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease.
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