Frequency and Evolution of Azole Resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus Associated with Treatment Failure1
Susan J. Howard, Dasa Cerar, Michael J. Anderson, Ahmed Albarrag, Matthew C. Fisher, Alessandro C. Pasqualotto, Michel Laverdiere, Maiken C. Arendrup, David S. Perlin, and David W. Denning
Author affiliations: Regional Mycology Laboratory, Manchester, UK (S.J. Howard, D.W. Denning); University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester (S.J. Howard, M.J. Anderson, A. Albarrag, D.W. Denning); University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia (D. Cerar); Imperial College, London, UK (M.C. Fisher); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil (A.C. Pasqualotto); Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, Québec, Canada (M. Laverdiere); Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark (M.C. Ardendrup); Public Health Research Institute, Newark, NJ, USA (D.S. Perlin)
Figure 2. Unrooted phylogenetic tree showing the genetic relationship of isolates from 7 patients.The genetic relationship of these isolates is shown in relation to each other and to 18 other isolates. AF numbers belong to a collection of >200 isolates, held in Manchester, UK. ATCC, American Type Culture Collection; CBS, Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures; FGSC, Fungal Genetics Stock Center. Bootstrap values >90 only are shown. Scale bar indicates nucleotide substitutions per site.
1These data were presented in part at the 2nd Advances Against Aspergillosis meeting, February 22–26, 2006, Athens, Greece; and 46th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, September 27–30, 2006, San Francisco, CA, USA.
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