Genetic Differences between Avian and Human Isolates of Candida dubliniensis
Brenda A. McManus, Derek J. Sullivan, Gary P. Moran, Christophe d’Enfert, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Miles A. Nunn, and David C. Coleman
Author affiliations: Dublin Dental School and Hospital, Dublin, Ireland (B.A. McManus, D.J. Sullivan, G.P. Moran, D.C. Coleman); Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (B.A. McManus, D.J. Sullivan, G.P. Moran, D.C. Coleman); Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (C. d’Enfert, M.-E. Bougnoux); National Environmental Research Council Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Oxford, UK (M.A. Nunn)
Figure. Neighbor-joining trees based on the polymorphic sites in Candida dubliniensis multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequences. Bootstrap values >60% are indicated at cluster nodes. Avian-associated isolates are indicated in red. Numbers of polymorphic sites in isolates are indicated by scale bars. A) Isolates of MLST clade C1 defined by McManus et al. (7) showing location of avian-associated isolates in relation to human isolates in the same clade; human isolates were originally obtained in many countries. B) Neighbor-joining tree based on polymorphic sites in MLST sequences for each of 13 internal transcribed spacer genotype 1 C. dubliniensis isolates, 7 of which were obtained from humans in Ireland and 6 from seabird excrement in Ireland. Isolates that had identical diploid sequence types (DSTs) were not included in the tree so that only 1 of each DST is included. Tree displays the robustness of the avian-associated subgroup of isolates within a population of similar human-associated isolates from the same region. The rate of heterozygosity among human and avian-associated clade C1 isolates was 1.6 and 1 heterozygous site per DST, respectively, from 36 polymorphic sites, which indicated that avian-associated isolates were more clonal.
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