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Volume 15, Number 9—September 2009

Research

Clinical Assessment and Improved Diagnosis of Bocavirus-induced Wheezing in Children, Finland

Maria Söderlund-VenermoComments to Author , Anne Lahtinen, Tuomas Jartti, Lea Hedman, Kaisa Kemppainen, Pasi Lehtinen, Tobias Allander, Olli Ruuskanen, and Klaus Hedman
Author affiliations: University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (M. Söderlund-Venermo, A. Lahtinen, L. Hedman, K. Kemppainen, K. Hedman); Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (L. Hedman, K. Hedman) Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland (T. Jartti, P. Lehtinen, O. Ruuskanen); Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden (T. Allander); Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (T. Allander)

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Table 1

Human bocavirus EIA and quantitative PCR results for 258 wheezing children, Finland*

PCR result No. children Serodiagnoses, IgM+,† no (%)
No serodiagnoses, no. (%)
SDG SC SI IgG+ IgG– All IgG+ IgG– Maternal
NPA+ serum+ 34 33 (97) 21 4 6 2 1 0 1 0
NPA+ serum– 15 2 (13) 0 0 2 0 13 10 3 0
NPA– serum– 194 1† (0.5) 1† 0 0 0 193 100 88 5
NPA– serum+ 15 12 (80) 6 1 2 3 3 1 2 0
NPA+ 49 35 (71) 21 4 8 2 14 10 4 0
NPA+, high load 28 27 (96) 21 3 2 1 1 0 1 0
NPA+, low load 21 8 (38) 0 1 6 1 13 10 3 0
Serum+ 49 45 (92) 27 5 8 5 4 1 3 0
NPA– 209 13 (6) 7† 1 2 3 196 101 90 5
Serum– 209 3 (1.4) 1† 0 2 0 206 110 91 5
Any PCR+
64
47 (73)
27
5
10
5

17
11
6
0
Total 258‡ 48 (19) 28 5 10 5 210 111 94 5

*EIA, enzyme immunoassay; Ig, immunoglobulin; serodiagnoses (SDG), IgM positive and/or IgG conversion or increase; no serodiagnoses, IgM negative and no seroconversion/increase; SC, seroconversion; SI, serologic increase (>-fold increase in IgG); IgG+, constant level (<4-fold increase) of IgG in paired serum samples; IgG–, IgG negative in both serum samples; NPA, nasopharyngeal aspirate; Serum+, PCR positive in either or both serum samples.
†One child was IgM negative. The IgG value of the convalescent-phase serum sample barely exceeded the cutoff value and the child was considered as not having an acute human bocavirus infection.
‡One of 259 children (10) was not included in this comparison because of depletion of the convalescent-phase serum sample before the PCR (NPA and acute-phase serum samples were PCR negative; both serum samples were IgG positive and IgM negative, indicating immunity).

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