Broiler Chickens as Source of Human Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli, Iceland
Thorunn R. Thorsteinsdottir , Gunnsteinn Haraldsson, Vala Fridriksdottir, Karl G. Kristinsson, and Eggert Gunnarsson
Author affiliations: University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland (T.R. Thorsteinsdottir, G. Harladsson, V. Fridriksdottir, K.G. Kristinsson, E. Gunnarsson); Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavík (G. Haraldsson, K.G. Kristinsson)
Figure. Dendrogram based on unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages cluster analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of the 20 broiler (2008), 7 feed (2008), and 34 human ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates along with 29 of the most closely related broiler (2005–2006) and broiler meat (2006–2007) isolates from an earlier study (1), Iceland. Boxes indicate clusters (isolates with >80% similarity by Dice coefficient similarity analysis) of isolates of different origins not seen in the previous study. Amp, ampicillin; ci, ciprofloxacin; gm, gentamicin; nal, nalidixic acid; sm, streptomycin; su, sulfamethoxazole; tc, tetracycline; tm, trimethoprim; tm/su, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
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